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You can buy the photo here www. Another closeup view of the resting Dragonfly. Sometimes they rest with both wings folded forward instead of the horizontal spanning posture. I watch them rubbing their face with their foreleg every now and then during their perching moment. I was checking through the images and realised that there is a small insect on the left wing of this dragonfly.
This image could be a little difficult for identifying the insect. I had put a note to indicate the insect. I had put together a newsletter, you can download here photo.
This dragonfly really love to be taken. I was able to do a 1: That is why I can be so close to it. I especially love to see the pattern on its wing and how it is joined to the Thorax. Here are the links he provided for information on Dragonfly. This is a beautiful dragonfly with deep maroon colour. I was thrill by the dark reflection in its eyes and the metallic reflection off the body.
For once I just can't stop at insects or arthropod. These frogs are entwined in such lovely position. These uniquely designed vertical gardens of 25 to metres tall have large canopies that provide shade in the day and come alive with an exhilarating display of light and sound at night. These unique trees of up to 16 storeys in height can be found all around the Gardens - twelve at the Supertree Grove, while the remaining six are placed in clusters of threes at the Golden and Silver Gardens.
A model from Middle French modelle is a person with a role either to promote, display, or advertise commercial products notably fashion clothing or to serve as a visual aide for people who are creating works of art or to pose for photography. Modelling "modeling" in American English is considered to be different from other types of public performance, such as acting or dancing.
Although the difference between modelling and performing is not always clear, appearing in a film or a play is not generally considered to be "modelling". Types of modelling include: Models are featured in a variety of media formats including: Fashion models are sometimes featured in films: Celebrities, including actors, singers, sports personalities and reality TV stars, frequently take modelling contracts in addition to their regular work.
Modelling as a profession was first established in by Charles Frederick Worth, the "father of haute couture", when he asked his wife, Marie Vernet Worth, to model the clothes he designed. The term "house model" was coined to describe this type of work. Eventually, this became common practice for Parisian fashion houses. There were no standard physical measurement requirements for a model, and most designers would use women of varying sizes to demonstrate variety in their designs.
With the development of fashion photography, the modelling profession expanded to photo modelling. Models remained fairly anonymous, and relatively poorly paid, until the late 's. One of the first well-known models was Lisa Fonssagrives , who was very popular in the 's. Fonssagrives appeared on over Vogue covers , and her name recognition led to the importance of Vogue in shaping the careers of fashion models.
Dorothea Church was among the first black models in the industry to gain notoriety in Paris. However, these models were unknown outside the fashion community. Compared to today's models, the models of the 's were more voluptuous. Wilhelmina Cooper's measurements were 38""" whereas Chanel Iman's measurements are 32""". In the 's, the modelling world began to establish modelling agencies.
Throughout Europe, secretarial services acted as models' agents charging them weekly rates for their messages and bookings. For the most part, models were responsible for their own billing. In Germany, agents were not allowed to work for a percentage of a person's earnings, so referred to themselves as secretaries. With the exception of a few models travelling to Paris or New York, travelling was relatively unheard of for a model. Most models only worked in one market due to different labor laws governing modelling in various countries.
In the 's, Italy had many fashion houses and fashion magazines but was in dire need of models. Italian agencies would often coerce models to return to Italy without work visas by withholding their pay. They would also pay their models in cash, which models would have to hide from customs agents. It was not uncommon for models staying in hotels such as La Louisiana in Paris or the Arena in Milan to have their hotel rooms raided by the police looking for their work visas.
It was rumored that competing agencies were behind the raids. This led many agencies to form worldwide chains; for example, the Marilyn Agency has branches in Paris and New York. By the late 's, London was considered the best market in Europe due to its more organised and innovative approach to modelling. It was during this period that models began to become household names. Twiggy became The Face of '66 at the age of At this time, model agencies were not as restrictive about the models they represented, although it was uncommon for them to sign shorter models.
Twiggy, who stood at 5 feet 6 inches cm with a 32" bust and had a boy's haircut, is credited with changing model ideals. The formation of this association helped legitimize modelling and changed the fashion industry. Even with a more professional attitude towards modelling, models were still expected to have their hair and makeup done before they arrived at a shoot.
Meanwhile, agencies took responsibility for a model's promotional materials and branding. That same year, former top fashion model Wilhelmina Cooper opened up her own fashion agency with her husband called Wilhelmina Models. By , FM Agency and Models 1 were established and represented models in a similar way that agencies do today.
By the late 's, models were treated better and were making better wages. One of the innovators, Ford Models , was the first agency to advance models money they were owed and would often allow teen models, who did not live locally, to reside in their house, a precursor to model housing.
The innovations of the 's flowed into the 's fashion scene. As a result of model industry associations and standards, model agencies became more business minded, and more thought went into a model's promotional materials. By this time, agencies were starting to pay for a model's publicity. In the early 's, Scandinavia had many tall, leggy, blonde-haired, blue-eyed models and not enough clients.
It was during this time that Ford Models pioneered scouting. They would spend time working with agencies holding modelling contests. This was the precursor to the Ford Models Supermodel of the World competition which was established in Ford also focused their attentions on Brazil which had a wide array of seemingly "exotic" models, which eventually led to establishment of Ford Models Brazil. It was also during this time that the Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue debuted.
The magazine set a trend by photographing "bigger and healthier" California models, and printing their names by their photos, thus turning many of them into household names and establishing the issue as a hallmark of supermodel status. The 's marked numerous milestones in fashion.
Beverly Johnson was the first African American to appear on the cover of U. Many of the world's most prominent modelling agencies were established in the 's and early 's.
These agencies created the standard by which agencies now run. In , Nevs Models was established in London with only a men's board, the first of its kind.
The next year Cal-Carries was established in Singapore, the first of a chain of agencies in Asia. By the 's, most models were able to make modelling a full-time career. It was common for models to travel abroad and work throughout Europe. As modelling became global, numerous agencies began to think globally.
In , cosmetics companies began contracting top models to lucrative endorsement deals. By , Elite developed its own contest titled the Elite Model Look competition.
In New York during the 's there were so-called "model wars" in which the Ford and Elite agencies fought over models and campaigns. Models were jumping back and forth between agencies such Elite, Wilhelmina, and Ford. In New York, the late 's trend was the boyish look in which models had short cropped hair and looked androgynous.
In Europe, the trend was the exact opposite. During this time, a lot of American models who were considered more feminine looking moved abroad. By the mid's, big hair was made popular by some musical groups, and the boyish look was out. The curvaceous models who had been popular in the 's and early 's were in style again.
The early 's were dominated by the high fashion models of the late 's. Evangelista and her contemporaries, Naomi Campbell, Cindy Crawford, Christy Turlington, Tatjana Patitz and Stephanie Seymour , became arguably the most recognizable models in the world, earning the moniker of "supermodel" , and were boosted to global recognition and new heights of wealth for the industry.
While the heroin chic movement was inspired by model Jaime King , who suffered from a heroin addiction, it was Kate Moss who became its poster child through her ads for Calvin Klein. With the popularity of lingerie retailer Victoria's Secret , and the Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue, there was a need for healthier-looking supermodels such as Tyra Banks and Heidi Klum to meet commercial modelling demand.
By the late 's, the heroin chic era had run its course. Teen-inspired clothing infiltrated mainstream fashion, teen pop music was on the rise, and artists such as Britney Spears and Christina Aguilera popularized pleather and bare midriffs. As fashion changed to a more youthful demographic, the models who rose to fame had to be sexier for the digital age.
Following Gisele Bundchen's breakthrough, a wave of Brazilian models including Adriana Lima, Alessandra Ambrosio, and Ana Beatriz Barros rose to fame on runways and became popular in commercial modelling throughout the 's. Some attribute this to decisions by magazines to replace models with celebrities their covers./p>
The 's marked numerous milestones in fashion. Beverly Johnson was the first African American to appear on the cover of U. Many of the world's most prominent modelling agencies were established in the 's and early 's. These agencies created the standard by which agencies now run. In , Nevs Models was established in London with only a men's board, the first of its kind. The next year Cal-Carries was established in Singapore, the first of a chain of agencies in Asia.
By the 's, most models were able to make modelling a full-time career. It was common for models to travel abroad and work throughout Europe. As modelling became global, numerous agencies began to think globally.
In , cosmetics companies began contracting top models to lucrative endorsement deals. By , Elite developed its own contest titled the Elite Model Look competition. In New York during the 's there were so-called "model wars" in which the Ford and Elite agencies fought over models and campaigns. Models were jumping back and forth between agencies such Elite, Wilhelmina, and Ford. In New York, the late 's trend was the boyish look in which models had short cropped hair and looked androgynous.
In Europe, the trend was the exact opposite. During this time, a lot of American models who were considered more feminine looking moved abroad. By the mid's, big hair was made popular by some musical groups, and the boyish look was out.
The curvaceous models who had been popular in the 's and early 's were in style again. The early 's were dominated by the high fashion models of the late 's. Evangelista and her contemporaries, Naomi Campbell, Cindy Crawford, Christy Turlington, Tatjana Patitz and Stephanie Seymour , became arguably the most recognizable models in the world, earning the moniker of "supermodel" , and were boosted to global recognition and new heights of wealth for the industry.
While the heroin chic movement was inspired by model Jaime King , who suffered from a heroin addiction, it was Kate Moss who became its poster child through her ads for Calvin Klein. With the popularity of lingerie retailer Victoria's Secret , and the Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue, there was a need for healthier-looking supermodels such as Tyra Banks and Heidi Klum to meet commercial modelling demand.
By the late 's, the heroin chic era had run its course. Teen-inspired clothing infiltrated mainstream fashion, teen pop music was on the rise, and artists such as Britney Spears and Christina Aguilera popularized pleather and bare midriffs. As fashion changed to a more youthful demographic, the models who rose to fame had to be sexier for the digital age. Following Gisele Bundchen's breakthrough, a wave of Brazilian models including Adriana Lima, Alessandra Ambrosio, and Ana Beatriz Barros rose to fame on runways and became popular in commercial modelling throughout the 's.
Some attribute this to decisions by magazines to replace models with celebrities their covers. In the late 's, the Brazilians fell out of favor on the runways. Editorial clients were favoring models with a china-doll or alien look to them, such as Gemma Ward and Lily Cole. During the 's, Ford Models and NEXT Model Management were engaged in a legal battle, with each agency alleging that the other was stealing its models. However, the biggest controversy of the 's was the health of high-fashion models participating in fashion week.
While the health of models had been a concern since the 's, there were several high-profile news stories surrounding the deaths of young fashion models due to eating disorders and drug abuse. The British Fashion Council subsequently asked designers to sign a contract stating they would not use models under the age of sixteen.
On March 3, , Vogue banned models under the age of sixteen as well as models who appeared to have an eating disorder. Similarly, other countries placed bans on unhealthy, and underage models, including Spain, Italy, and Israel, which all enacted a minimum body mass index BMI requirement. The often thin shape of many fashion models has been criticized for warping girls' body image and encouraging eating disorders. Organizers of a fashion show in Madrid in September turned away models who were judged to be underweight by medical personnel who were on hand.
In February , six months after her sister, Luisel Ramos, also a model, died, Uruguayan model Eliana Ramos became the third fashion model to die of malnutrition in six months. The second victim was Ana Carolina Reston. Luisel Ramos died of heart failure caused by anorexia nervosa just after stepping off the catwalk.
In , France passed a law requiring models to be declared healthy by a doctor in order to participate in fashion shows. The law also requires re-touched images to be marked as such in magazines. Key new protections included the following: Runway models showcase clothes from fashion designers, fashion media, and consumers.
They are also called "live models" and are self-employed. They are wanted to be over the height of 5'8" for men and 5'6" for women. Runway models work in different locations, constantly travelling between those cities where fashion is well known—London, Milan, New York City, and Paris.
Second-tier international fashion center cities include: Cities where catalog work comprises the bulk of fashion packaging, merchandising and marketing work are: The criteria for runway models include certain height and weight requirements.
During runway shows, models have to constantly change clothes and makeup. Models walk, turn, and stand in order to demonstrate a garment's key features. Models also go to interviews called "go and sees" to present their portfolios. A runway model can also work in other areas, such as department store fashion shows, and the most successful models sometimes create their own product lines or go into acting.
The British Association of Model Agents AMA says that female models should be around 34""" and between 5 ft 8 in cm and 5 ft 11 in cm tall.
The average model is very slender. Those who do not meet the size requirement may try to become a plus-size model. According to the New York Better Business Career Services website, the preferred dimensions for a male model are a height of 5 ft 11 in cm to 6 ft 2 in cm , a waist of 29—32 in Male runway models are notably skinny and well toned.
Male and female models must also possess clear skin, healthy hair, and attractive facial features. There can be some variation regionally, and by market tier, subject to current prevailing trends at any point, in any era, by agents, agencies and end-clients. Formerly, the required measurements for models were 35" Today's fashion models tend to have measurements closer to the AMA-recommended shape, but some - such as Afghan model Zohre Esmaeli - still have 35" Although in some fashion centers, a size 00 is more ideal than a size 0.
Plus-size models are models who generally have larger measurements than editorial fashion models. The primary use of plus-size models is to appear in advertising and runway shows for plus-size labels. Plus-size models are also engaged in work that is not strictly related to selling large-sized clothing, e. Therefore, plus-size models do not exclusively wear garments marketed as plus-size clothing.
This is especially true when participating in fashion editorials for mainstream fashion magazines. Some plus-size models have appeared in runway shows and campaigns for mainstream retailers and designers such as Gucci, Guess, Jean-Paul Gaultier, Levi's and Versace Jeans. A fit model works as a sort of live mannequin to give designers and pattern makers feedback on the fit, feel, movement, and drape of a garment to be produced in a given size. Glamour modelling focuses on sexuality and thus general requirements are often unclear, being dependent more on each individual case.
Glamour models can be any size or shape. There is no industry standard for glamour modelling and it varies greatly by country. For the most part, glamour models are limited to modelling in calendars, men's magazines, such as Playboy, bikini modelling, lingerie modelling, fetish modelling, music videos, and extra work in films.
However, some extremely popular glamour models transition into commercial print modelling, appearing in swimwear, bikini and lingerie campaigns. It is widely considered that England created the market for glamour modelling when The Sun established Page 3 in , a section in their newspaper which now features topless models. In the beginning, the newspaper featured sexually suggestive images of Penthouse and Playboy models.
It was not until that models appeared topless. In the 's, The Sun's competitors followed suit and produced their own Page 3 sections. It was during this time that glamour models first came to prominence with the likes of Samantha Fox. As a result, the United Kingdom has a very large glamour market and has numerous glamour modelling agencies to this day. It was not until the 's that modern glamour modelling was established. During this time, the fashion industry was promoting models with waif bodies and androgynous looking women, which left a void.
Several fashion models, who were deemed too commercial, and too curvaceous, were frustrated with industry standards, and took a different approach. Models such as Victoria Silvstedt left the fashion world and began modelling for men's magazines.
In the previous decades, posing nude for Playboy resulted in models losing their agencies and endorsements. Pamela Anderson became so popular from her Playboy spreads that she was able to land roles on Home Improvement and Baywatch. At the same time, magazines including Sweden's Slitz re-branded themselves as men's magazines. Pre-internet, these magazines were popular among men in their late teens and early twenties because they were considered to be more tasteful than their predecessors.
With the glamour market growing, fashion moved away from the waifs and onto Brazilian bombshells. The glamour market, which consisted mostly of commercial fashion models and commercial print models, became its own genre due to its popularity.
Even in a large market like the United Kingdom, however, glamour models are not usually signed exclusively to one agency as they can not rely financially on one agency to provide them with enough work. It was, and still is, a common practice for glamour models to partake in kiss-and-tell interviews about their dalliances with famous men. The notoriety of their alleged bed-hopping often propels their popularity and they are often promoted by their current or former fling.
With Page 3 models becoming fixtures in the British tabloids, glamour models such as Jordan , now known as Katie Price , became household names. In the early 's, glamour models, and aspiring glamour models, appeared on reality television shows such as Big Brother to gain fame.
Several Big Brother alumni parlayed their fifteen minutes of fame into successful glamour modelling careers. However, the glamour market became saturated by the mid's, and numerous men's magazines including Arena, Stuff and FHM in the United States went under. During this time, there was a growing trend of glamour models, including Kellie Acreman and Lauren Pope , becoming DJs to supplement their income. An alternative model is any model who does not fit into the conventional model types and may include punk, goth, fetish , and tattooed models or models with distinctive attributes.
This type of modeling is usually a cross between glamour modeling and art modeling. Publishers such as Goliath Books in Germany introduced alternative models and punk photography to larger audiences. Billi Gordon, then known as Wilbert Anthony Gordon, was the top greeting card model in the world and inspired a cottage industry including greeting cards, T-shirts, fans, stationery, gift bags, etc.
Some models are employed for their body parts. For example, hand models may be used to promote products held in the hand and nail-related products. They are frequently part of television commercials. Many parts models have exceptionally attractive body parts, but there is also demand for unattractive or unusual looking body parts for particular campaigns. Hands are the most in-demand body parts. Feet models are also in high demand, particularly those who fit sample size shoes. Models are also successful modelling other specific parts including abs, arms, back, bust or chest, legs, and lips.
Some petite models females who are under 5 ft 6 in 1. Parts model divisions can be found at agencies worldwide. Parts Models is the largest parts agency, representing over parts models.
Fitness modelling focuses on displaying a healthy, toned physique. Fitness models usually have defined muscle groups. The model's body weight is heavier due to muscle weighing more than fat; however, they have a lower body fat percentage because the muscles are toned and sculpted. Fitness models are often used in magazine advertising. Sometimes they are certified personal fitness trainers.
However, other fitness models are also athletes and compete as professionals in fitness and figure competitions. There are several agencies in large markets such as New York, London, Germany that have fitness modelling agencies.
While there is a large market for these models, most of these agencies are a secondary agency promoting models who typically earn their primary income as commercial models. Plus there are also magazines that gear towards specifically fitness modeling or getting fit and in shape. Fitness Models showcase their fitter side of their bodies on the covers gearing towards specific competitions in fitness and figure competitions.
A gravure idol, often abbreviated to gradol, is a Japanese female model who primarily models on magazines, especially men's magazines, photobooks or DVDs. The rotogravure process is still used for commercial printing of magazines, postcards, and cardboard product packaging.
Gravure idols appear in a wide range of photography styles and genres. Their photos are largely aimed at male audiences with poses or activities intended to be provocative or suggestive, generally accentuated by an air of playfulness and innocence rather than aggressive sexuality. Although gravure models may sometimes wear clothing that exposes most of their body, they seldom appear fully nude. Gravure models may be as young as pre-teen age up to early thirties. In addition to appearing in mainstream magazines, gravure idols often release their own professional photobooks and DVDs for their fans.
Many popular female idols in Japan launched their careers by starting out as gravure idols. Commercial print models generally appear in print ads for non-fashion products, and in television commercials. Commercial print models are usually non-exclusive, and primarily work in one location. There are several large fashion agencies that have commercial print divisions, including Ford Models in the United States.
A promotional model is a model hired to drive consumer demand for a product, service, brand, or concept by directly interacting with potential consumers. The vast majority of promotional models tend to be attractive in physical appearance.
They serve to provide information about the product or service and make it appealing to consumers. While the length of interaction may be short, the promotional model delivers a live experience that reflects on the product or service he or she is representing.
This form of marketing touches fewer consumers for the cost than traditional advertising media such as print, radio, and television ; however, the consumer's perception of a brand, product, service, or company is often more profoundly affected by a live person-to-person experience. Marketing campaigns that make use of promotional models may take place in stores or shopping malls, at tradeshows, special promotional events, clubs, or even at outdoor public spaces.
They are often held at high traffic locations to reach as many consumers as possible, or at venues at which a particular type of target consumer is expected to be present. A spokesmodel may be a celebrity used only in advertisements in contrast to a brand ambassador who is also expected to represent the company at various events , but more often the term refers to a model who is not a celebrity in their own right.
A classic example of the spokesmodel are the models hired to be the Marlboro Man between and Trade show models work a trade show floor-space or booth, and represent a company to attendees. Trade show models are typically not regular employees of the company, but are freelancers hired by the company renting the booth space.
They are hired for several reasons: They are articulate and quickly learn and explain or disseminate information on the company and its product s and service s. And they can assist a company in handling a large number of attendees which the company might otherwise not have enough employees to accommodate, possibly increasing the number of sales or leads resulting from participation in the show. Atmosphere models are hired by the producers of themed events to enhance the atmosphere or ambience of their event.
They are usually dressed in costumes exemplifying the theme of the event and are often placed strategically in various locations around the venue. It is common for event guests to have their picture taken with atmosphere models. For example, if someone is throwing a "Brazilian Day" celebration, they would hire models dressed in samba costumes and headdresses to stand or walk around the party. Podium models differ from runway models in that they don't walk down a runway, but rather just stand on an elevated platform during fashion presentation.
They are kind of like live mannequins placed in various places throughout an event. Attendees can walk up to the models and inspect and even feel the clothing. Podium Modeling is a practical alternative way of presenting fashion when space is too limited to have a full runway fashion show. Art models pose for any visual artist as part of the creative process. Art models are often paid professionals who provide a reference or inspiration for a work of art that includes the human figure.
The most common types of art created using models are figure drawing, figure painting, sculpture and photography, but almost any medium may be used. Although commercial motives dominate over aesthetics in illustration, its artwork commonly employs models. Models are most frequently employed for art classes or by informal groups of experienced artists that gather to share the expense of a model. Instagram models are a recent phenomenon due to the rise of social media.
These models gain their popularity due to how many followers they have on social media. Some Instagram models gain high-profile modeling gigs and become household names.
High-profile model, Jen Selter , kicked off the Instagram model craze. Facebook px RedBubble Talenthouse. How is it that we can appreciate the asses of men and women or women's breast and men's chest, but we can not acquire the aesthetic appreciation of the Insect ass. Which insect has the most beautiful ass?
What are the criteria in this judgement of beauty. Vote by the majority, or just private subjectivity? Give me your views and show me those insect asses in at least x pixels, otherwise we can't see them! I had so much fun chasing them with my cameras for 2 hours.
Each time, I could get closer and finally I could do a 1: Their movement is fast. I thought it would be nice to have a dragon in mid-flight shooting with existing light and a macro lens at 60mm focal length.
That would be a great challenge. Indeed, it was a great challenge, I had many blur photographs. I believe I have to spend more time with them to understand their behaviour and may be just one day, I could do that with a 60mm.
He was so swift. Without a sign, went off, came back with this fly, I supposed, in his mouth. He chew on it for about a minute and I still could see some part of the fly protruding from his mouth. I presume it is a he. For purchase of Art Work please check www. One of the world's most amazing hotel rooftop pools. Stretching an impressive metres across Sands Skypark, the stunning outdoor Infinity Pool designed by renowned architect Moshe Safdie is the world's largest at this height and offers the best city-skyline view in Singapore.
Initially I thought this was an ant, but on closer look, we spotted the beak near his mouth piece. The only thing I find very strange, is the eyes of this bug. It did not glitter. It seems to be blind. It even had spikes around his body to mimic the ant. Everything seems perfect except the beak or proboscis. Some times it makes me wonder why so many insects want to mimic ant, or was it that the ants accidentally father other insects or cross breed with other insects.
There are also many spiders that mimic different types of ants. She is absolutely, thoroughly, naked behind this fluffy blade. Does your mind wander at the sight of it? Beyond this nakedness - the truth about her — is a demonic persona; she juices you dry if she sets her straw deep into you. First she secretes a powerful digestive fluid into you which will break down your tissue.
And then slowly but surely she will slurp up the messy disintegrated part of you. You wouldn't even be aware that part of you is gone, until you start to feel the uncontrollable itch.
For the unfortunate, you may pass out in spasm. This is her deep dark secret, as naked as you can feel her. She is concealed by her brilliant yellow. You are attracted to her. You are fooled, human all too human.
What else is there to live for if we are not blinded by such beauty. We will never escape the naked female form. This is the naked truth. More can be found about my Photo Fair where I sold some prints of my selected images, and why I selected them: There are few buildings in Singapore as eye-catching as Esplanade, a world-class performing arts centre made up of two rounded frames fitted with over 7, triangle glass sunshades.
Locals have dubbed them "the Durian", as the twin structures resemble the spiky tropical fruit that is unique to this part of the world. I love the deep red colour of this dragonfly. They always gather around the ferns beside a shallow pond. I did see a mating process between a deep red female dragonfly and a blue coloured dragonfly.
However, I had not much luck capturing them with my dSLR. They were too shy to expose their intimate moment. Luckily I was able to capture this shot with multi-coloured reflection off the wings of this dragonfly. This is a consolation. Her wings are studed with many coloured diamonds and they shimmered in the strong sun light.
I could almost imagine electric charges firing through from her thorax to the tip of her double wing, turning the wings' windows into colourful diamonds. A Jain is a follower of Jinas "the saints" , human beings who have rediscovered the dharma, become fully liberated and taught the spiritual path for the benefit of beings. Jains follow the teachings of 24 special Jinas who are known as Tirthankaras 'ford-builders'.
The 23rd Tirthankar of Jains, Lord Parsvanatha is now recognised as a historical person, who lived during to BC. A major characteristic of Jain belief is the emphasis on the consequences of physical and mental behavior.
Jainism is a religious tradition in which all life is considered worthy of respect and it emphasises this equality of all life, advocating the protection of the smallest creatures.
The goal, as with other Indian religions, is moksha: Jains are a small, influential religious minority with at least 4. Jains have an ancient tradition of scholarship and the highest degree of literacy in India.
Parshvanatha, the twenty-third Tirthankara ford maker is the earliest Jain leader who can be reliably dated. Kalinga Modern Orissa was home to many Jains in the past. Rishabh, the first Tirthankar, was revered and worshipped in the ancient city Pithunda. This was destroyed by Mahapadma Nanda when he conquered Kalinga and brought the statue of Rishabhanatha to his capital in Magadh. Rishabhanatha is revered as the 'Kalinga Jina'. Ashoka's invasion and his Buddhist policy also subjugated Jains greatly in Kalinga.
The Khandagiri and Udaygiri caves near Bhubaneswar are the only surviving stone Jain monuments in Orissa. Earlier buildings were made of wood and were destroyed. Deciphering of the Brahmi script, India's oldest script, believed to have been created by the first Tirthankara Rishabhanatha, by James Prinsep in enabled the reading of ancient inscriptions in India and established the antiquity of Jainism.
Discovering Jain manuscripts, continues and has added significantly to retracing Jain history. Several western and Indian scholars have contributed to the reconstruction of Jain history. Jainism has been a major cultural, philosophical, social and political force since the dawn of civilization in Asia, and its ancient influence has been noted in other religions, including Buddhism and Hinduism.
This pervasive influence of Jain culture and philosophy in ancient Bihar possibly gave rise to Buddhism. The Buddhists have always maintained that during the time of Buddha and Mahavira, Jainism was already an ancient, deeply entrenched faith and culture there.
For connections between Buddhism and Jainism see Buddhism and Jainism. Over several thousand years, Jain influence on Hindu philosophy and religion has been considerable, while Hindu influence on Jain rituals may be observed in certain Jain sects. For instance, the concept of puja is Jain. The Vedic Religion prescribed yajnas and havanas for pleasing god. Puja is a specifically Jain concept, arising from the Tamil words, "pu" flower and "ja" offering.
With 10 to 12 million followers, Jainism is among the smallest of the major world religions, but in India its influence is much more than these numbers would suggest. Karnataka, Bundelkhand and Madhya Pradesh have relatively large Jain populations.
There is a large following in Punjab, especially in Ludhiana and Patiala, and there used to be many Jains in Lahore Punjab's historic capital and other cities before the Partition of , after which many fled to India.
There are many Jain communities in different parts of India and around the world. They may speak local languages or follow different rituals but essentially follow the same principles. Jainism is presently a strong faith in the United States and several Jain temples have been built there.
American Jainism accommodates all the sects. In Belgium the very successful Indian diamond community, almost all of which are Jain are also establishing a temple to strengthen Jain values in and across Western Europe.
Some historians believe there was no clear division until the 5th century. The best available information indicates that the chief Jain monk, Acharya Bhadrabahu, foresaw famine and led about 12, Digambar followers to southern India. Twelve years later they returned to find the Shvetambar sect, and in the Valabhi council edited and compiled traditional Shwetambar scriptures.
The differences between the two sects are minor and relatively obscure. Diagramatic representation of Schisms within Jainism along with the timelines. In Sanskrit, ambar refers to a covering generally, or a garment in particular.
Dig, an older form of disha, refers to the cardinal directions. Digambar therefore means "covered by the four directions", or "sky-clad". Svet means white and Svetambars wear white garments. Digambar Jain monks do not wear clothes because they believe clothes are like other possessions, increase dependency and desire for material things, and desire for anything ultimately leads to sorrow. Svetambar Jain monks, on the other hand, wear white, seamless clothes for practical reasons, and believe there is nothing in Jain scripture that condemns wearing clothes.
Sadhvis nuns of both sects wear white. These differing views arise from different interpretations of the same holy books. There are minor differences in each sect's literature. Digambars believe that women cannot attain moksha in the same birth, while Svetambars believe that women may attain liberation and that Mallinath, a Tirthankar, was a woman.
The difference is because Digambar ascetism requires nudity. As nudity is impractical for women, it follows that without it they cannot attain moksha. Digambars believe that Mahavir was not married, whereas Shvetambars believe the princely Mahavir was married and had a daughter. The two sects also differ on the origin of Mata Trishala, Mahavira's mother. Sthanakavasis and Digambars believe that only the first five lines are formally part of the Namokara Mantra the main Jain prayer , whereas Svetambaras believe all nine form the mantra.
Other differences are minor and not based on major points of doctrine. Excavations at Mathura revealed many Jain statues from the Kushana period. Tirthankaras, represented without clothes and monks, with cloth wrapped around the left arm, are identified as Ardhaphalaka and mentioned in some texts.
The Yapaniya sect, believed to have originated from the Ardhaphalaka, follows Digambara nudity, along with several Shvetambara beliefs.
Svetambaras are further divided into sub-sects, such as Sthanakavasi, Terapanthi and Deravasi. Some are murtipujak revering statues while non-murtipujak Jains refuse statues or images.
Shvetamber follow the 12 agam literature voice of omniscient. Most simply call themselves Jains and follow general traditions rather than specific sectarian practices. In , a committee with representatives from every sect compiled a new text called the Samana Suttam. Jains, like Buddhists, do not have a teacher of our age. For Jains, Mahavira is the first or most recent teacher of the Way. Like other Indian religions, knowledge of the truth dharma is considered to have declined and then revived cyclically over the course of history.
Those who rediscover dharma are called Tirthankara. The literal meaning of Tirthankar is 'ford-builder'. Jains, like Buddhists, compare the process of becoming a pure human being to crossing a swift river - an endeavour requiring patience and care. A ford-builder is someone who has themselves already crossed the river and can therefore able guide others. A Jain follows a Jina. Note that the Buddha Gotama was sometimes referred to as Jina. Like Buddhadharma, the purpose of Jain dharma is mental and physical purification to undo the negative effects of karma.
The goal of this process is liberation accompanied by a great natural inner peace. A tirthankar is considered omniscient, a role model but not a god. There have been 24 Tirthankaras in what the Jains call the 'present age'. Historical records the last two Tirthankaras: Parshvanath and Mahavir the 23rd and 24th.
Jains believe all souls are equal because they all possess the potential of being liberated and attaining Moksha. Girl next door college teens group nudes.
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