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We have not verified that the email belongs to you. Please check your inbox for the verification email. Or sign in with a different account. You will receive an email shortly to confirm your email address. Passionate biography of painter Vincent van Gogh, whose genius drove him mad. Brilliant adaptation of Irving Stone's biography of painter Van Gogh, vividly portraying his anguished life. Quinn won well-deserved Oscar for performance as painter-friend Gauguin, in this exquisite color production.
Script by Norman Corwin. Produced by John Houseman. Fine music score by Miklos Rozsa. Trees bursting with white bloom. A dream that too often turned to This short entry in the "Believe It or Not" series, features various sights and oddities, such as a golf course made from Civil War trenches and a Native American who can paint upside down.
The respected painter takes to drink and faces down scandal after his wife dies. Handsome bio of Dutch painter, full of visual tableaux and sparked by Laughton's excellent performance. One of Gertrude Lawrence's rare film appearances. A man remains young and handsome while his portrait shows the ravages of age and sin.
Haunting Oscar Wilde story of man whose painting ages while he retains youth. Sanders leaves indelible impression as elegant heavy. Several color inserts throughout the film. Harry Stradling's cinematography won an Oscar. Based on Oscar Wilde's novel, the story begins when the subject of an artist's painting expresses his desire to maintain his An American artist finds love in Paris but almost loses it to conflicting loyalties.
Joyous, original musical built around Gershwin score; dazzling in color. Plot of artist Kelly torn between gamine Caron and wealthy Foch is creaky, but the songs, dances, production are superb. Look fast for Noel Neill as an art student. Michelangelo fights censorship and an autocratic pope to paint the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel.
Virtually forced to do the job by Julius, he later destroys his own work and flees to Rome. Eventually resumed, the project becomes a battle of wills fueled by artistic and Four failed writers try to attend a friend's funeral. Four odd-ball buddies friends of a writer who has had the poor taste to die without warning join together to take a wildly irreverent ride from Greenwich Village to Brooklyn-only to A failure in the U. An opportunistic singer woos a wealthy widow to boost his career.
Sinatra is in peak form as a cocky nightclub singer who makes a move on every "dame'' he meets--including innocent showgirl Novak--but meets his Waterloo when wealthy, demanding Hayworth agrees to bankroll his dream of running his own club. Almost complete rewrite of the Broadway show based on John O'Hara's short stories, but entertaining just the same, with a great Rodgers and Hart score including "Bewitched, Bothered, and Bewildered'' with sanitized lyrics , "The Lady Is a Tramp.
A nightclub singer enlists her brother-in-law to track down her husband's killer. Hayworth and Ford sparkle as cafe singer and brother-in-law seeking her husband's murderer.
Hayworth is most enticing. A moralist sets out to reform the legendary South Seas floozy. A marine base sits in the desolate and remote outpost of American Samoa, where only the weather seems to change. Partners in a tramp steamer both fall for a mysterious lady passenger. Contrived but entertaining melodrama of Mitchum and Lemmon, owners of tramp boat, falling in love with shady Hayworth on voyage between islands. This short film provides a glimpse at famous art galleries of Rome, Florence and the Vatican.
Herod's stepdaughter discovers Christianity through her love for a Roman centurion. Great cast struggles with unintentionally funny script in biblical drama of illustrious dancer who offers herself to spare John the Baptist. Filmed before with Nazimova in This short film presents a look at Italy's popular tourist spots.
In this sumptuous Civil War story, a willful southern belle goes mad out of fear that she may be part black. Solid acting and memorable Johnny Green score help compensate for rambling, over-long script; Clift was disfigured in near-fatal car accident during production, and his performance understandably suffers for it.
Reissued on video in with 15m. An Alaskan fisherman is dogged by a ruthless competitor and an ambitious dance hall girl. Rugged version of Rex Beach's brawling novel about the struggle for control of Alaska's burgeoning salmon fishing industry. McCrea is young fisherman torn between shady lady Brent and debutante Arthur, resulting in a memorable catfight between the two.
Dated action yarn bolstered by good cast and fine documentary-style location work. Rival fishing fleets meet in hand-to-hand battle for superiority in the Alaskan wilderness. An undercover G-man helps with a jailbreak to learn the mob's secrets. Interesting but uneven hybrid of gangster yarn with jailhouse theatrics dominating the first half and romantic comedy.
Arthur is always a pleasure to watch. In this comedic short, a group of musicians takes desperate measures to appear on a radio program. A detective teams with his ex-wife to solve a murder. When a jockey heads for that great post position in the sky during a major race mystery writer Paula Bradford is sure it's murder.
Lawrence Bradford is sure she's When he inherits a fortune, a small-town poet has to deal with the corruption of city life. Cooper is Longfellow Deeds, who inherits 20 million dollars and wants to give it all away to needy people. Arthur is appealing as the hard-boiled big-city reporter who tries to figure out what makes him tick.
Later a short-lived TV series. Soon he's facing a hearing to determine whether he's mentally A girl from a family of freethinkers falls for the son of a conservative banker. Hinds, Harry Davenport, Charles Lane. Kaufman Moss Hart play about eccentric but blissfully happy household becomes prime Capracorn, not quite as compelling today as MR. Oscar winner for Best Picture and Director. Followed a half- century later by a TV series.
The World War II housing shortage brings three people together for an unlikely romance. The wartime housing shortage forces Arthur to share a Washington, D. Highly entertaining, with Arthur at her peerless best. A storm strands travelers in a house full of dangerous eccentrics.
Outstanding melodrama with tongue-in-cheek gathers stranded travelers in mysterious Welsh household, where brutish butler Karloff is just one of many strange characters.
A real gem, based on J. Priestley's Benighted; screenplay by Benn W. Remade in England in In this musical short film, two night watchmen hear music performed in a haunted pawn shop. A framed man comes back from the dead to seek revenge. Karloff is framed and executed, but professor brings him back to life. As he regains his memory, he seeks out those who framed him.
The inhabitants of a Balkans island under quarantine fear that one of their number is a vampire. Eerie horror tale of assorted characters stranded on Greek island during quarantine--one of them possibly a vampire. Good Val Lewton production. This short film focuses on whether or not the dead can communicate with the living. When an actress tries to reform an asylum, its corrupt keeper has her committed. Atmospheric chiller of courageous Lee trying to expose shameful conditions at notorious 18th-century London insane asylum run by corrupt head Karloff.
Producer Val Lewton also coscripted under pseudonym Carlos Keith. Robert Clarke appears unbilled./p>
Sarah Lazin began her publishing career on the editorial staff of Rolling Stone in She also created book packaging divisions for Ms. Based in New York, Sarah represents a range of nonfiction writers working in fields such as popular culture, biography, history, politics, journalism, memoir, parenting, health, practical nonfiction, contemporary affairs, social issues, and general reference.
She also handles fiction from literary works and short stories to commercial novels, and represents some photographers and illustrators and several estates. Sarah Levitt represents critically acclaimed fiction and nonfiction writers. Her list includes journalists, academics, historians, scientists, and musicians, among others.
For thirteen years Lippincott worked as a literary agent and founding partner of Lippincott Massie McQuilkin. Most recently, Lippincott served as Chief Operating Officer of Shareblue Media, the fast-growing digital news and opinion platform. Jen Marshall has worked closely over the years with a wide range of award-winning and bestselling authors, including Margaret Atwood, P.
Prior to that, Jen worked as an independent bookseller. She brings to her work as an agent a thorough understanding of the publishing and bookselling industries, as well as deep expertise in public relations, social media, and audience-building.
Marshall represents a range of fiction and nonfiction. She is most interested in books you would recommend to your friends in a hot minute: She divides her time between our New York office and her home in Western Massachusetts. During her time as an undergraduate, she also studied comparative literature at top universities in Japan and South Korea. She also has an interest in select platform nonfiction projects that speak to younger audiences.
Lauren Sharp represents award-winning journalists, historians, and academics from the Washington Post , the Wall Street Journal , the U. Sharp is based in Washington, DC, and represents nonfiction in the areas of politics, history, current affairs, narrative nonfiction, and science.
She is most interested in investigative journalism, unexplored history, big ideas that challenge conventional wisdom, and voice-driven memoirs that shed light on cultures, places, or industries.
A former subsidiary rights assistant at Knopf, Thornton has practiced copyright law for 12 years, representing authors and their estates as well as Pearson Education, where she was in house counsel before becoming an agent. Based in the New York office, Thornton is seeking authors working in a broad range of areas, including literary and commercial fiction, narrative nonfiction, biography, memoir, and nonfiction in the areas of health, science, business, parenting, and education.
Susan Zanger represents influential and groundbreaking content creators including Aaron Mahnke, creator of the hit podcast Lore , now a major book series and worldwide streaming television show, in addition to celebrities, athletes, and lifestyle, business, and thought leaders, among others. She has held senior roles in magazine publishing and marketing and was most recently Director, Content Development at Zachary Shuster Harmsworth.
Erica Bauman is a graduate of Johns Hopkins University and has worked in the publishing industry for the last five years. Before coming to Aevitas she worked at Spectrum Literary Agency.
Based in New York, Erica is currently focused on representing a wide range of authors across middle grade, young adult, and adult fiction, as well as some select narrative nonfiction projects. Justin is interested in character-driven literary fiction, both realist and speculative, as well as memoir and reportage. In both genres, he looks for work that explores the surreal in everyday life, as well as work that turns a nuanced eye to the world of sports.
He is based in New York. Mack represents nonfiction as an Aevitas agent based in New York. She did extensive coursework in film and media studies, gender and race studies, and creative writing. The laws were similar to those that already existed in England, though more detailed and with severe penalties for breaking them.
Arnold Arluke and Boria Sax write that the Nazis tried to abolish the distinction between humans and animals, to the point where many people were regarded as less valuable than animals.
In April they passed laws regulating the slaughter of animals; one of their targets was kosher slaughter. In November the Tierschutzgesetz , or animal protection law, was introduced, with Adolf Hitler announcing an end to animal cruelty: Despite the proliferation of animal protection legislation, animals still had no legal rights. Debbie Legge writes that existing legislation was very much tied to the idea of human interests, whether protecting human sensibilities by outlawing cruelty, or protecting property rights by making sure animals were not damaged.
The over-exploitation of fishing stocks, for example, is viewed as harming the environment for people; the hunting of animals to extinction means that humans in the future will derive no enjoyment from them; poaching results in financial loss to the owner, and so on. Notwithstanding the interest in animal welfare of the previous century, the situation for animals arguably deteriorated in the 20th century, particularly after the Second World War.
This was in part because of the increase in the numbers used in animal research— in the UK in , 19, in , and 2. In the early s in England, support for animal rights began to coalesce around the issue of blood sports , particularly hunting deer, foxes , and otters using dogs, an aristocratic and middle-class English practice, stoutly defended in the name of protecting rural traditions. The psychologist Richard D.
Ryder — who became involved with the animal rights movement in the late s — writes that the new chair of the League Against Cruel Sports tried in to steer it away from confronting members of the hunt, which triggered the formation that year of a direct action breakaway group, the Hunt Saboteurs Association. This was set up by a journalist, John Prestige, who had witnessed a pregnant deer being chased into a village and killed by the Devon and Somerset Staghounds.
The practice of sabotaging hunts for example, by misleading the dogs with scents or horns spread throughout south-east England, particularly around university towns, leading to violent confrontations when the huntsmen attacked the "sabs".
The controversy spread to the RSPCA, which had arguably grown away from its radical roots to become a conservative group with charity status and royal patronage. It had failed to speak out against hunting, and indeed counted huntsmen among its members.
As with the League Against Cruel Sports, this position gave rise to a splinter group, the RSPCA Reform Group, which sought to radicalize the organization, leading to chaotic meetings of the group's ruling Council, and successful though short-lived efforts to change it from within by electing to the Council members who would argue from an animal rights perspective, and force the RSPCA to address issues such as hunting, factory farming, and animal experimentation.
Ryder himself was elected to the Council in , and served as its chair from to The same period saw writers and academics begin to speak out again in favor of animal rights.
The relationship of homo sapiens to the other animals is one of unremitting exploitation. We employ their work; we eat and wear them. We exploit them to serve our superstitions: To us it seems incredible that the Greek philosophers should have scanned so deeply into right and wrong and yet never noticed the immorality of slavery.
Perhaps years from now it will seem equally incredible that we do not notice the immorality of our own oppression of animals. Robert Garner writes that Harrison's book and Brophy's article led to an explosion of interest in the relationship between humans and nonhumans. They decided to put together a symposium to discuss the theory of animal rights. Around the same time, Richard Ryder wrote several letters to The Daily Telegraph criticizing animal experimentation, based on incidents he had witnessed in laboratories.
Ryder also started distributing pamphlets in Oxford protesting against experiments on animals; it was in one of these pamphlets in that he coined the term " speciesism " to describe the exclusion of nonhuman animals from the protections offered to humans. An Inquiry into the Maltreatment of Non-humans.
In , over lunch in Oxford with fellow student Richard Keshen, a vegetarian, Australian philosopher Peter Singer came to believe that, by eating animals, he was engaging in the oppression of other species. In the review, he used the term "animal liberation", writing:. We are familiar with Black Liberation, Gay Liberation, and a variety of other movements.
With Women's Liberation some thought we had come to the end of the road. Discrimination on the basis of sex, it has been said, is the last form of discrimination that is universally accepted and practiced without pretense But one should always be wary of talking of "the last remaining form of discrimination. Animals, Men and Morals is a manifesto for an Animal Liberation movement.
On the strength of his review, The New York Review of Books took the unusual step of commissioning a book from Singer on the subject, published in as Animal Liberation , now one of the animal rights movement's canonical texts.
Singer based his arguments on the principle of utilitarianism — the view, in its simplest form, that an act is right if it leads to the "greatest happiness of the greatest number", a phrase first used in by Jeremy Bentham.
The book's publication triggered a groundswell of scholarly interest in animal rights. Richard Ryder 's Victims of Science: A Christian Perspective , and Stephen R. Clark 's The Moral Status of Animals From onwards, a series of articles by Tom Regan led to his The Case for Animal Rights , in which he argues that nonhuman animals are "subjects-of-a-life", and therefore possessors of moral rights, a work regarded as a key text in animal rights theory.
The Band attacked hunters' vehicles by slashing tires and breaking windows, calling it "active compassion". In November , they engaged in their first act of arson when they set fire to a Hoechst Pharmaceuticals research laboratory, claiming responsibility as a "nonviolent guerilla organization dedicated to the liberation of animals from all forms of cruelty and persecution at the hands of mankind. Lee and another activist were sentenced to three years in prison in , paroled after 12 months.
In , Lee brought together the remaining Band of Mercy activists along with some fresh faces to start a leaderless resistance movement, calling it the Animal Liberation Front ALF. The decentralized model of activism is frustrating for law enforcement organizations, who find the networks difficult to infiltrate, because they tend to be organized around friends. ALF activists respond to the criticism with the argument that, as Ingrid Newkirk puts it, "Thinkers may prepare revolutions, but bandits must carry them out.
From the s through to the early s there was an increased level of violence by animal rights extremist groups directed at individuals and institutions associated with animal research. Henry Spira — , a former seaman and civil rights activist, became the most notable of the new animal advocates in the United States. A proponent of gradual change, he formed Animal Rights International in , and introduced the idea of "reintegrative shaming", whereby a relationship is formed between a group of animal rights advocates and a corporation they see as misusing animals, with a view to obtaining concessions or halting a practice.
It is a strategy that has been widely adopted, most notably by People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals. Spira's first campaign was in opposition to the American Museum of Natural History in , where cats were being experimented on, research that he persuaded them to stop.
His most notable achievement was in , when he convinced the cosmetics company Revlon to stop using the Draize test , which involves toxicity tests on the skin or in the eyes of animals. He took out a full-page ad in several newspapers, featuring a rabbit with sticking plaster over the eyes, and the caption, "How many rabbits does Revlon blind for beauty's sake?
In , New Zealand passed a new Animal Welfare Act that had the effect of banning experiments on "non-human hominids". This law makes it a felony to create, sell, or possess videos showing animal cruelty with the intention of profiting financially from them.
In , the Austrian parliament banned experiments on apes, unless they are performed in the interests of the individual ape.
The chimpanzee had been captured as a baby in Sierra Leone in , then smuggled to Austria to be used in pharmaceutical experiments, but was discovered by customs officials when he arrived in the country, and was taken to a shelter instead. He was kept there for 25 years, until the group that ran the shelter went bankrupt in Donors offered to help him, but under Austrian law only a person can receive personal gifts, so any money sent to support him would be lost to the shelter's bankruptcy.
The lawyer proposing the chimpanzee's personhood asked the court to appoint a legal guardian for him and to grant him four rights: In June , a committee of Spain's national legislature became the first to vote for a resolution to extend limited rights to nonhuman primates.
The parliamentary Environment Committee recommended giving chimpanzees, bonobos, gorillas, and orangutans the right not to be used in medical experiments or in circuses, and recommended making it illegal to kill apes, except in self-defense, based upon the rights recommended by the Great Ape Project. From onwards, several countries outlawed the use of some or all animals in circuses, starting with Bolivia , and followed by several countries in Europe, Scandinavia, the Middle East, and Singapore.
In , the regional government in Catalonia passed a motion to outlaw bull fighting , the first such ban in Spain. It was the first time the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution , which outlaws slavery and involuntary servitude, was cited in court to protect nonhuman rights. A federal judge dismissed the case in February In , the Nonhuman Rights Project NhPR filed three lawsuits in New York State on behalf of four captive chimpanzees, demanding that the courts grant them the right to bodily liberty via the writ of Habeas Corpus and to immediately send them to a sanctuary affiliated with the North American Primate Sanctuary Alliance.
In the case involving the chimpanzees Hercules and Leo, Justice Barbra Jaffe did not immediately dismiss the filing and instead ordered a hearing requiring the chimpanzee owner to show why the chimpanzees should be not be released and transferred to the sanctuary. In its press release it emphasized the fact that Justice Jeffe agreed with NhRP when finding that "'persons' are not restricted to human beings, and that who is a 'person' is not a question of biology, but of public policy and principle" and also stating that "Efforts to extend legal rights to chimpanzees are thus understandable; some day they may even succeed.
Robert Garner writes that both Hindu and Buddhist societies abandoned animal sacrifice and embraced vegetarianism from the 3rd century BCE. Several kings in India built hospitals for animals, and the emperor Ashoka — BCE issued orders against hunting and animal slaughter, in line with ahimsa , the doctrine of non-violence.
Garner writes that Jainism took this idea further. Jains believe that no living creature should be harmed, and they are known to clear paths in front of them by sweeping them to protect any insect life that may be present. Paul Waldau writes that, in , the High Court in Kerala used the language of "rights" in relation to circus animals, ruling that they are "beings entitled to dignified existence" under Article 21 of the Indian Constitution.
The ruling said that if human beings are entitled to these rights, animals should be too. The court went beyond the requirements of the Constitution that all living beings should be shown compassion, and said: In , the Indian government issued a ban on the use of live animals in education and much research.
For some the basis of animal rights is in religion or animal worship or in general nature worship , with some religions banning killing of any animal; One of the most important sanctions of the Buddhist faith is the concept of ahimsa , or refraining from the destruction of life.
According to Buddhist belief, humans do not deserve preferential treatment over other living beings. See also in section above. In contrast, in other religions, animals can be unclean , with in general allowing eating all except for these; " The Torah allows eating certain kinds of "winged swarming things" i.
Animal rights were recognized early by the Sharia Islamic law. This recognition is based on both the Qur'an and the Hadith. In the Qur'an, there are many references to animals, detailing that they have souls, form communities, communicate with God and worship Him in their own way.
Muhammad forbade his followers to harm any animal and asked them to respect the rights of animals. Othman Llewellyn even argues that Shariah has mechanisms for the full repair of injuries suffered by non-human creatures including their representation in court, assessment of injuries and awarding of relief to them. The rights of livestock and animals upon man: On the other hand, animal sacrifice is a prominent feature of Eid al-Adha observances.
The two main philosophical approaches to animal rights are utilitarian and rights-based. Deontologists argue that there are acts we should never perform, even if failing to do so entails a worse outcome. There are a number of positions that can be defended from a consequentalist or deontologist perspective, including the capabilities approach , represented by Martha Nussbaum , and the egalitarian approach , which has been examined by Ingmar Persson and Peter Vallentyne. The capabilities approach focuses on what individuals require to fulfill their capabilities: Nussbaum argues that animals need a right to life, some control over their environment, company, play, and physical health.
Clark , Mary Midgley , and Bernard Rollin also discuss animal rights in terms of animals being permitted to lead a life appropriate for their kind.
Rosalind Hursthouse has suggested an approach to animal rights based on virtue ethics. Nussbaum writes that utilitarianism, starting with Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill, has contributed more to the recognition of the moral status of animals than any other ethical theory. Singer is not a rights theorist, but uses the language of rights to discuss how we ought to treat individuals. He is a preference utilitarian , meaning that he judges the rightness of an act by the extent to which it satisfies the preferences interests of those affected.
His position is that there is no reason not to give equal consideration to the interests of human and nonhumans, though his principle of equality does not require identical treatment.
A mouse and a man both have an interest in not being kicked, and there are no moral or logical grounds for failing to accord those interests equal weight. Interests are predicated on the ability to suffer, nothing more, and once it is established that a being has interests, those interests must be given equal consideration.
Singer argues that equality of consideration is a prescription, not an assertion of fact: But the moral idea of equality does not depend on matters of fact such as intelligence, physical strength, or moral capacity.
Equality therefore cannot be grounded on the outcome of scientific investigations into the intelligence of nonhumans. All that matters is whether they can suffer.
Commentators on all sides of the debate now accept that animals suffer and feel pain, although it was not always so. Bernard Rollin , professor of philosophy, animal sciences, and biomedical sciences at Colorado State University, writes that Descartes' influence continued to be felt until the s.
Veterinarians trained in the US before were taught to ignore pain, he writes, and at least one major veterinary hospital in the s did not stock narcotic analgesics for animal pain control. In his interactions with scientists, he was often asked to "prove" that animals are conscious, and to provide "scientifically acceptable" evidence that they could feel pain.
Scientific publications have made it clear since the s that the majority of researchers do believe animals suffer and feel pain, though it continues to be argued that their suffering may be reduced by an inability to experience the same dread of anticipation as humans, or to remember the suffering as vividly.
Singer writes that, if language were needed to communicate pain, it would often be impossible to know when humans are in pain, though we can observe pain behavior and make a calculated guess based on it. He argues that there is no reason to suppose that the pain behavior of nonhumans would have a different meaning from the pain behavior of humans.
Tom Regan, professor emeritus of philosophy at North Carolina State University, argues in The Case for Animal Rights that nonhuman animals are what he calls "subjects-of-a-life", and as such are bearers of rights.
Although only humans act as moral agents, both marginal-case humans, such as infants, and at least some nonhumans must have the status of "moral patients".
Moral patients are unable to formulate moral principles, and as such are unable to do right or wrong, even though what they do may be beneficial or harmful. Only moral agents are able to engage in moral action. Animals for Regan have " intrinsic value " as subjects-of-a-life, and cannot be regarded as a means to an end, a view that places him firmly in the abolitionist camp. His theory does not extend to all animals, but only to those that can be regarded as subjects-of-a-life. Whereas Singer is primarily concerned with improving the treatment of animals and accepts that, in some hypothetical scenarios, individual animals might be used legitimately to further human or nonhuman ends, Regan believes we ought to treat nonhuman animals as we would humans.
He applies the strict Kantian ideal which Kant himself applied only to humans that they ought never to be sacrificed as a means to an end, and must be treated as ends in themselves.
Gary Francione, professor of law and philosophy at Rutgers Law School in Newark, is a leading abolitionist writer, arguing that animals need only one right, the right not to be owned. Everything else would follow from that paradigm shift. He writes that, although most people would condemn the mistreatment of animals, and in many countries there are laws that seem to reflect those concerns, "in practice the legal system allows any use of animals, however abhorrent.
In deciding what counts as "unnecessary", an animal's interests are weighed against the interests of human beings, and the latter almost always prevail. Francione's Animals, Property, and the Law was the first extensive jurisprudential treatment of animal rights.
In it, Francione compares the situation of animals to the treatment of slaves in the United States , where legislation existed that appeared to protect them, while the courts ignored that the institution of slavery itself rendered the protection unenforceable.
He argues that a focus on animal welfare, rather than animal rights, may worsen the position of animals by making the public feel comfortable about using them and entrenching the view of them as property.
He calls animal rights groups who pursue animal welfare issues, such as People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals , the " new welfarists ", arguing that they have more in common with 19th-century animal protectionists than with the animal rights movement; indeed, the terms "animal protection" and "protectionism" are increasingly favored.
His position in was that there is no animal rights movement in the United States. Mark Rowlands , professor of philosophy at the University of Florida, has proposed a contractarian approach, based on the original position and the veil of ignorance —a "state of nature" thought experiment that tests intuitions about justice and fairness—in John Rawls 's A Theory of Justice In the original position, individuals choose principles of justice what kind of society to form, and how primary social goods will be distributed , unaware of their individual characteristics—their race, sex, class, or intelligence, whether they are able-bodied or disabled, rich or poor—and therefore unaware of which role they will assume in the society they are about to form.
The idea is that, operating behind the veil of ignorance, they will choose a social contract in which there is basic fairness and justice for them no matter the position they occupy. Rawls did not include species membership as one of the attributes hidden from the decision makers in the original position.
Rowlands proposes extending the veil of ignorance to include rationality, which he argues is an undeserved property similar to characteristics including race, sex and intelligence.
American philosopher Timothy Garry has proposed an approach that deems nonhuman animals worthy of prima facie rights. In a philosophical context, a prima facie Latin for "on the face of it" or "at first glance" right is one that appears to be applicable at first glance, but upon closer examination may be outweighed by other considerations.
In his book Ethics: A Pluralistic Approach to Moral Theory , Lawrence Hinman characterizes such rights as "the right is real but leaves open the question of whether it is applicable and overriding in a particular situation".
However, these rights can be overridden by many other considerations, especially those conflicting a human's right to life, liberty, property, and the pursuit of happiness. Garry supports his view arguing:. My point is that like laws govern all who interact within a society, rights are to be applied to all beings who interact within that society. This is not to say these rights endowed by humans are equivalent to those held by nonhuman animals, but rather that if humans possess rights then so must all those who interact with humans.
In sum, Garry suggests that humans have obligations to nonhuman animals; however, animals do not, and ought not to, have uninfringible rights against humans.
Women have played a central role in animal advocacy since the 19th century. The modern animal advocacy movement has a similar representation of women, though Garner writes that they are not invariably in leadership positions: In the Netherlands, Marianne Thieme and Esther Ouwehand were elected to parliament in representing the Parliamentary group for Animals.
The preponderance of women in the movement has led to a body of academic literature exploring feminism and animal rights; feminism and vegetarianism or veganism, the oppression of women and animals, and the male association of women and animals with nature and emotion, rather than reason—an association that several feminist writers have embraced.
Some transhumanists argue for animal rights, liberation, and "uplift" of animal consciousness into machines. Frey , professor of philosophy at Bowling Green State University, is a preference utilitarian, as is Singer, but reaches a very different conclusion, arguing in Interests and Rights that animals have no interests for the utilitarian to take into account.
Frey argues that interests are dependent on desire, and that no desire can exist without a corresponding belief. Animals have no beliefs, because a belief state requires the ability to hold a second-order belief—a belief about the belief—which he argues requires language: Carl Cohen , professor of philosophy at the University of Michigan, argues that rights holders must be able to distinguish between their own interests and what is right.
In applying such rules, [they] Only in a community of beings capable of self-restricting moral judgments can the concept of a right be correctly invoked. Cohen writes that the test for moral judgment "is not a test to be administered to humans one by one", but should be applied to the capacity of members of the species in general.
If a dog threatens a human infant, even if it requires causing more pain to the dog to stop it, than the dog would have caused to the infant, then we favour the child. It would be monstrous to spare the dog.
Singer challenges this by arguing that formerly unequal rights for gays, women, and certain races were justified using the same set of intuitions. Posner replies that equality in civil rights did not occur because of ethical arguments, but because facts mounted that there were no morally significant differences between humans based on race, sex, or sexual orientation that would support inequality.
If and when similar facts emerge about humans and animals, the differences in rights will erode too. But facts will drive equality, not ethical arguments that run contrary to instinct, he argues.
Posner calls his approach "soft utilitarianism", in contrast to Singer's "hard utilitarianism". The "soft" utilitarian position on animal rights is a moral intuition of many, probably most, Americans. We realize that animals feel pain, and we think that to inflict pain without a reason is bad.
Nothing of practical value is added by dressing up this intuition in the language of philosophy; much is lost when the intuition is made a stage in a logical argument.
When kindness toward animals is levered into a duty of weighting the pains of animals and of people equally, bizarre vistas of social engineering are opened up. Roger Scruton , the British philosopher, argues that rights imply obligations. Every legal privilege, he writes, imposes a burden on the one who does not possess that privilege: He accuses animal rights advocates of "pre-scientific" anthropomorphism , attributing traits to animals that are, he says, Beatrix Potter -like, where "only man is vile.
The world of animals is non-judgmental, filled with dogs who return our affection almost no matter what we do to them, and cats who pretend to be affectionate when, in fact, they care only about themselves. It is, he argues, a fantasy, a world of escape.
Evolutionary studies have provided explanations of altruistic behaviours in humans and nonhuman animals, and suggest similarities between humans and some nonhumans. In , research led by psychologist Diana Reiss and zoologist Lori Marino was presented to a conference in San Diego, suggesting that dolphins are second in intelligence only to human beings, and concluded that they should be regarded as nonhuman persons. Marino used MRI scans to compare the dolphin and primate brain; she said the scans indicated there was "psychological continuity" between dolphins and humans.
Reiss's research suggested that dolphins are able to solve complex problems, use tools, and pass the mirror test , using a mirror to inspect parts of their bodies. Studies have established links between interpersonal violence and animal cruelty. In Christian theology , the founder of the Methodist movement, John Wesley , was a Christian vegetarian and maintained "that animals had immortal souls and that there were considerable similarities between human and non-human animals.
According to a paper published in by Harold Herzog and Lorna Dorr, previous academic surveys of attitudes towards animal rights have tended to suffer from small sample sizes and non-representative groups.
These include gender, age, occupation, religion, and level of education. There has also been evidence to suggest that prior experience with companion animals may be a factor in people's attitudes. Women are more likely to empathize with the cause of animal rights than men.
A survey to examine whether or not people who believed in evolution were more likely to support animal rights than creationists and believers in intelligent design found that this was largely the case — according to the researchers, the respondents who were strong Christian fundamentalists and believers in creationism were less likely to advocate for animal rights than those who were less fundamentalist in their beliefs.
Two surveys found that attitudes towards animal rights tactics, such as direct action , are very diverse within the animal rights communities. One survey concluded "it would be a mistake to portray animal rights activists as homogeneous. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Because Soros probably has the real-time deep moles to warn him of pending action; the Russian technology to defeat American drone equipment; and a dossier on all the important players.
Eight years of Obama — put a lot of weasels in the hen house. From what I understand bc I asked the same questions, was they needed to have all the players exposed and the only way they could do this was letting it play out. I mean if Trump had just immediately cleaned house many players would have walked away totally unexposed and able to later cause problems or do more shady things. Apparently some House members are drawing up articles of impeachment for Rod Rosenstein.
Look and tel me. Yeah and notice how much Chelsea or whatever her name is Clintons daughter looks just like young Elizabeth- the Queen. Talk about chilling Have you seen Hillary describe, how her flying monkeys slaughtered Khadaffi? TFH I watched your video. Be very carful where you go.
There are other worlds out there, sure. What the Everlasting God has done in the eternity from the past? He has been creating worlds. It is consistent with the Bible. However, there is only one fallen world and this is us and we are cut off all the worlds and they cannot come here. We are not alone here. They are the demonic forces and he is the Prince of this World who tempted Christ.
They will come to you and reveal the knowledge if you ask them and worship them. Edison, the story tells, would sit in dark room and meditate until solution would come. The governments are all in occult. Thanks Mr Hunter and Mr Shipp. The internal fighting will be monstrous.
The idea alone that Russian oligarchs were and are bribing many USA politicians and others is amusing,have you ever met a Russian throwing money around,why they make people from Northern Ireland look like spendthrifts. This was why so many European bureaucrats and politicians balked at the possibility of their names being on a bribe list. It may also explain their nice life styles within our draconian tax system.
A sliver of a suggestion of this came to light in the Panama Papers. Still we await to see the hubris of the commies and their ZIL lane being clapped in irons and it has been a long wait. If it happens rolling scream will occur. Here in the UK our economy still sucks and tensions are running high,but the weather has been beyond compare. Maria das Santos My grandpa had a saying about politicians. Keep up the good work Gerg and Kevin. But one day, Truth, Justice, Courage and Perseverance will eventually win the bloody battle which Kevin says is coming.
Do you believe there will be justice served regarding Hillary et al. My personal opinion is that the corruption goes all the way to Obama, due to his micromanaging style and his huge narcissistic personality.
I am also of the opinion, that the perps will walk. I expect McCabe and perhaps Strzok or Page will be thrown under the bus, but that is it.
The Mueller investigation it a total farce. The scene of the crime is the DNC server. So Mueller is just now getting around to the server crime scene after 15 months??????? Some anti-Trumpers are not tied to the commie leftists but have their own masters of greed and corruption. I think he is a truly courageous, even heroic, man of integrity and commitment to truth. It really is an amazing time to be alive! Why are the clintons and their accomplices still on the loose? All this talk about thousands of indictments mean absolutely nothing to me and obviously to these criminals.
Dave Janda once said never go to a private party alone in DC as compromising photos will most likely be taken of you where your service will be called upon to eliminate a potential problem. Hey Al;With the Clintons battery of lawyers to defend them, one uncrossed T or one undotted I, and they will walk.
Give them time to get it right before they start. If only it were that easy to put the Clintons in jail, but when they arrest the Clintons, that is going to be the big news around the world. And with that, people might start selling bonds or doing whatever in order to make the economy fail.
Trump and for God to give him wisdom and protection. If we all pray, God might grant our prayers to be answered.
In my view the globalist and the deep state are joined at the hip. I expext all out retaliation in the form of civil war and direct involvement from the U. Hillary Clinton is part of a global network that has infiltrated our government and our banking system and has plans that include many of us.
This will be all out war before this is over. The fuse has been lit. Q is either a deep state troll, or he is part of an alliance that is warning the American public of what is to come. The Army still posting Internment Specialist Jobs. I tip my hat to you on the quality and veracity of your postings. Recently I was asked to join their network-as they see an epic economic shock followed by unimaginable social chaos coming our way all too soon. Shadow, The blueprint for our destruction was laid out a long time ago.
Satilite trucks have been spotted all over this country by my personal contacts , and the Chinese have a major base just across the border from Brownsville. The globalist have planned to carve this country up like a thanksgiving day turkey for years. The only thing between us and them is Donald Trump and our second amendment rights. I pray for our future he is successful. But I know these people like the back of my hand, and I can assure you that anyone that can spray chemicals on populated areas, and fly planes into skyscrapers is capable of anything.
He knows the pigs he is dealing with. My take on why they have not been jailed. Mid terms need a red wave first. After that then maybe things will start to turn. The gold price fix that many of us have been watching for may be about to happen courtesy of,the IMF and China.
They are literally stealing kids from good homes to traffic them. It is beyond belief. I kept seeing all these people saying their children were taken due to false abuse allegations. My first reaction was yeah right you are probably an abuser and those kids are better off. I was so wrong- yeah there are people out there sadly that abuse their kids, but what we are seeing right now is something different.
There are quotas being placed on child protective services of how many kids the must remove from their homes and there is even a quota on how many newborns they need to take.
Once I really researched this stuff I was and am still floored that anyone could be this evil. They take children from good homes and place them often in homes where the are severely abused.
It is a nightmare. What is the motivation for all these people to endanger themselves on behalf of the Clintons? Look back over the list of previous US Presidents. These people all had lines they would not cross. There is your answer. If Hillary Clinton had been elected, the NWO had won and anything they wanted to do, no matter how vile, she would have done, anything. It is those same people right now basically itching for a war. How did that happen? Warmongers of the World Unite!!
There is no such thing as democratic marxism. Marxism is, and always has been, completely totalitarian in nature. It was founded on totalitarian principles and has never moved away from them.
Anyone who tells you different is lying to you. Greg, A little off topic but now that I know you have the ability to contact Kevin would you please pass along a message to him? During the Hagmann show dated 6 Nov at the beginning of the third hour Tom provides a thesis that should be considered. Please provide this info to Mr. I believe trump will have a high noon show down with the deep state even if he must implement military tribunals because of the scope of the corruption.
The touchy part is how to deal with half the country whom the deep state has delluded into thinking pres. I think they censor comments on it internet and stuff like that to make it appear there are more of them than there are. Quick someone wake up Robert — He needs to know! Tommy Robinson, Muslims and name calling. For such an intelligent, and articulate person — I find it disappointing that you reduce yourself to veiled messages: And sniping seems something below your grade.
Charles, you are a man of honour and integrity. I offer my sincerest apologies if I have offended your sensibilities. My only honor and integrity is derived from my fixed criteria of Biblical faith, which serves to compare the world against. Your apology is the mark of a mature and respectable person. And you are a sharp intellect, no doubt. And as an Englishperson — you have a better voice than most, and an authority of place or country; like as an ambassador. None of us are always right — but I concur with Greg Hunter: Biblical Truth will set one free, to a greater realm.
Christianity is not blind servitud to well written precepts and fables: Apart from my failing efforts: I hope you will someday that you will decide to have the eyes to see. Tommy Robinson is in jail in your Sceptred Isle for exorcizing free speech and you even mock my assertion how much you country is in trouble and this this does not really bother you. I feature radical pedophiles of radical Islam and not Muslims in general—Big difference.
Finally, you are proving yourself to be a bit of a blockhead idiot and now I know why you post anonymously. So, yes, I resort to name calling, but you deserve it. Cheers to the black hole of nothingness. Seek real love—seek Christ. TSI, In urge you to seek Christ. Only then can enlightenment be obtained. I love it when you have Mr Shipp on your show. I agree with Anthony Australia, this is not going to end well.
Add the currency reset and we have quite a mix, especially if people have not been paying attention. That being said we have to go through this to move on and heal as a Country. A marriage is like a bridge — it only works as long as BOTH sides keep up their part. The same with a country. Never trust anything with hairline fractures — Especially mugs with scalding hot water in them!
And so the show continues. Failure is what this is. It is always more of the same old, same old. Greg, all I can say is WOW, absolutely remarkable. I have heard and read a lot of this info previously but with Mr. Shipp repeating this info, considering his background and undoubtedly his numerous connections, both in the intelligence field and policing, the USA and in fact the world is about to be lit on fire when these revelations are released publically.
Hillary and her cabal are criminals, traitors and sex perverts. They have not only committed treason against America but have totally upset the world order in their quest for world domination.
I am sure Mr. Shipp is being totally guarded on the info he can admit to at this time and has no doubt been privy to actual evidence. In my mind I believe that the Clinton cabal used bribes as part of their leverage but most fundamentally used blackmail ie: There is no doubt that many Russians are involved in treason, criminal activity as well. I believe on this trip Trump told Nato and the five eyes that he knows what they have done and his intentions, he told the Brits he knows what their intelligence agencies have done and what he intends to do about it.
Trump can I believe maintain order in the West and he requires a partner in the East to maintain order after the revelations. This is where I believed Putin comes in as he is the leader of the dominant power in the East. They have spy agency as US has spy agency and their job is to infiltrate foreign governments.
Russians are loyal to Russia. It is not a new concept. Russians technically cannot betray USA because they are Russians. Our intelligence spooks are much better trained than Russian, look at Coop, Andy Cooper.
Our spys are strictly Hollywood. Heck we own Holywood. I think the only government we failed at toppling is Syria. I know of no government the Russkies were successful at propagandizing the populace enough to overthrow their prospective governments. Which except for Syria has been quite successful. As any young American can attest, as I can.
Remember the movie with Sophia Loren. Propaganda which makes you laugh is much stronger than propaganda which makes you hate. The oldtimers knew what they were doing. Frederick- Excellent question and I for one think the answer is no. That makes me think they have much more control in the globalists scene than we can ever imagine.
I mean why did we not use our own oil for all these years? We allowed the Middle East which is very and has been for as long as I can remember unstable control the oil market and they became very wealthy from it. Idk I could for sure be way off, just seems off to me that these actors and such who supposedly make millions of dollars would prositute themselves out to Arabs for money.
Would you be a hooker if you made that much money from acting? Coaster Rand Paul nailed it. Hillary was taking bribes from these oligarchs Putin was one of these oligarchs to dispense a bigger piece of the walk around money.
Obama, Holders, Brennan …. They did it to protect the operation which had fallen apart when Putin did an Adolf Hitler, turning against the swamp creatures. Hence, the CNN talking heads were confident that the Russian oligarchs would turn against Putin during the commencement of the sanction.
May all Watchdogs say their prayers for justice to be served. Greg, why not send your interview with Kevin to every Congressman and Senator. One thing we know for sure, when the sunshine comes the cockroaches will run for cover.
Another thing for sure, the Almighty G-d of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob will not be mocked, his justice has been perverted and at some point Judgement will come. Greg, you are doing a great service for society, may the Lord bless you and your work. So many apparent witnesses and or whistle blowers, and yet no indictments, no arrest of the real criminals.
The rot WILL be removed; unfortunately so will some of the healthy tissue. We have to prepare as best we can. We are ahead of the curve; we are more prepared than our enemies in every way. Our enemies are playing catch up. We need to stay ahead of the curve, i. In other words, we need keep the initiative and keep them reacting to us.
Counterintuitively, President Trump may let them riot and burn whole cities to the ground before he counter attacks to victory. That will not mean that he will be reacting to them, only that he will be using them to prepare the battlefield that he wishes to fight upon.
This looks to be one of the most brutal, devastating wars in history. IMO, President Trump has got the initiative. Historically — we are in uncharted waters: Biblically, we proceed through a glass darkly. Great convulsions lie ahead. Technology allows us to make the same mistakes but on a grander scale.
It was written in and some of its perspectives seem to date from the s. Of course many of its lessons are still applicable. However, the advance of technology seems, to me, to have rendered others inapplicable. No, hundreds of journalists and bureaucrats of no particular rank and guilt, suspect an evidence transfer is about to take place.
Or at least discussions about said evidence. I suspect the Russians have additional evidence on the international pedophile network that might indict most of Washington.
My best instincts tell me that sanctions against Russian businessmen and a few companies are intertwined with this, and not necessarily linked to US public accusations for previously announced sanctions. Uranium One will be hot-button, no doubt. Somewhere within the discussions, we may see a quid pro quo. Trump and Putin have made headway on Syria.
Putin will make significant headway in the Israel-Palestinian talks with the US role almost non-existent. I think Iran will play a role, that as a peace treaty becomes more visible, Israel will discontinue air attacks into Syria. Iran will hold tight in Syria.
By that mere act, we may see a meeting with Mr. Trump and possibly Mr. Rouhani and the Ayatollah. Removing the sanctions against a largely American-loving populace for now would be a good start. So we utilize some to blend with the heavier Canadian oil sands. You think to much. Thanks Greg, I am curious about the missing 42 trillion dollars? The possibility of a dog and pony show, using the Clinton fraud foundation to divert our attention from this fraud?
Will they use a scapegoat, someone high up enough in government to satisfy the American people that justice is done? And sweep away the memory of our fleecing…. It is likely that the Hillary emails are not lost but hidden from us. The NSA is scavenging all electronic communications it seems. It is reported that her server was hacked by foreign governments. They still exist somewhere. What would we pay the Russians to have a copy? The Judge lady on Fox dropped some bombs today regarding Hillarys emails.
I think we already have them, maybe Russia provided them IDK. Hillary would take them all down because they are all guilty. But who would be left to run spy agencies? May be we should outsource our homeland security to KGB or even better Chinese. It is MacBook Pro when you enable so called Vault.
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