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In 50 BCE the Roman philosopher Lucretius wrote the epic poem On the Nature of Things , which is now one of the best surviving examples of Greek materialist thought in a materialist's own words. Most of our knowledge of Greek materialism comes from the remaining writings that opposed the view This work contains the best known explanation of the Greek concept of biological evolution written by a proponent of the teaching.

For lapsing aeons change the nature of The whole wide world, and all things needs must take One status after other, nor aught persists Forever like itself. All things depart; Nature she changeth all, compelleth all To transformation.

In suchwise, then, the lapsing aeons change The nature of the whole wide world, and earth Taketh one status after other. And what She bore of old, she now can bear no longer, And what she never bore, she can to-day.

In those days also the telluric world Strove to beget the monsters that upsprung With their astounding visages and limbs- The Man-woman- a thing betwixt the twain, Yet neither, and from either sex remote- Some gruesome Boggles orphaned of the feet, Some widowed of the hands, dumb Horrors too Without a mouth, or blind Ones of no eye, Or Bulks all shackled by their legs and arms Cleaving unto the body fore and aft, Thuswise, that never could they do or go, Nor shun disaster, nor take the good they would.

And other prodigies and monsters earth Was then begetting of this sort- in vain, Since Nature banned with horror their increase, And powerless were they to reach unto The coveted flower of fair maturity, Or to find aliment, or to intertwine In works of Venus. For we see there must Concur in life conditions manifold, If life is ever by begetting life To forge the generations one by one: First, foods must be; and, next, a path whereby The seeds of impregnation in the frame May ooze, released from the members all; Last, the possession of those instruments Whereby the male with female can unite, The one with other in mutual ravishments.

And in the ages after monsters died, Perforce there perished many a stock, unable By propagation to forge a progeny. For whatsoever creatures thou beholdest Breathing the breath of life, the same have been Even from their earliest age preserved alive By cunning, or by valour, or at least By speed of foot or wing. And many a stock Remaineth yet, because of use to man, And so committed to man's guardianship. Valour hath saved alive fierce lion-breeds And many another terrorizing race, Cunning the foxes, flight the antlered stags.

Light-sleeping dogs with faithful heart in breast, However, and every kind begot from seed Of beasts of draft, as, too, the woolly flocks And horned cattle, all, my Memmius, Have been committed to guardianship of men.

For anxiously they fled the savage beasts, And peace they sought and their abundant foods, Obtained with never labours of their own, Which we secure to them as fit rewards For their good service. But those beasts to whom Nature has granted naught of these same things- Beasts quite unfit by own free will to thrive And vain for any service unto us In thanks for which we should permit their kind To feed and be in our protection safe- Those, of a truth, were wont to be exposed, Enshackled in the gruesome bonds of doom, As prey and booty for the rest, until Nature reduced that stock to utter death.

But Centaurs ne'er have been, nor can there be Creatures of twofold stock and double frame, Compact of members alien in kind, Yet formed with equal function, equal force In every bodily part- a fact thou mayst, However dull thy wits, well learn from this: Such hybrid creatures could not have been begot And limbs of all beasts heterogeneous Have been together knit; because, indeed, The divers kinds of grasses and the grains And the delightsome trees- which even now Spring up abounding from within the earth- Can still ne'er be begotten with their stems Begrafted into one; but each sole thing Proceeds according to its proper wont And all conserve their own distinctions based In Nature's fixed decree.

The monsters that Lucretius mentions no doubt refer to the many forms found in fossils, but the discussion of monsters also contains the idea that many of the early forms of life were "unfit", and that through a process of "natural selection", which he discusses, the forms of life that were able to survive did survive and have passed on their traits to their present day descendants.

It is also important to note that Lucretius denied the existence of "fantastical" creatures, such as centaurs, griffins, etc. As much as this sounds similar to our present day concept of evolution it must be remember that Lucretius' work is but a poem, and though poems were often used in ancient times, it was still not as rigorous a text as other scholarly works. We do know, however, that an even more sophisticated concept of evolution existed hundreds of years before Lucretius because of Aristotle's discussion of the concept in BCE.

Aristotle refuted the idea of evolution, however, but mentioned the concept in his work because he taught against it. He taught against it because it was a known concept that had been embraced by a significant portion of thinkers at the time. We must explain then 1 that Nature belongs to the class of causes which act for the sake of something;. Why then should it not be the same with the parts in nature, e. Wherever then all the parts came about just what they would have been if they had come before an end, such things survived, being organized spontaneously in a fitting way; whereas those which grew otherwise perished and continue to perish Such are the arguments and others of the kind which may cause difficulty on this point.

Yet it is impossible that this should be the true view. For teeth and all other natural things either invariably or normally come about in a given way; but of not one of the results of chance or spontaneity is this true. We do not ascribe to chance or mere coincidence the frequency of rain in winter, but frequent rain in summer we do; nor heat in the dog-days, but only if we have it in winter.

If then, it is agreed that things are either the result of coincidence or for an end, and these cannot be the result of coincidence or spontaneity, it follows that they must be for an end; and that such things are all due to nature even the champions of the theory which is before us would agree. Therefore action for an end is present in things which come to be and are by nature. This description of the process of evolution and natural selection put forward by Aristotle is perhaps the most lucid explanation of evolution to be found in the existing literature of the ancient Greeks.

Why is it that the best explanation of evolution comes to us in a book that is written by an author that is opposed to the concept of evolution? Understanding Christian belief requires understanding the historical development of those beliefs, and understanding the Christian impact on the world also requires understanding the historical rise of Christianity.

The concept of God in Christianity is not the Jewish concept of God. The God of the Hebrews was a God that embodied both good and bad. He was the creator of both strife and blessing. The Christian concept of God, on the other hand, is a combination of the Platonic god concept and the Zoroastrian God. Furthermore, the god of the Hebrews was not well defined, he was simply YAHWEH, who gave various commands and was given credit for the fortunes or misfortunes of the Hebrew people.

Likewise, the Jews did not have a concept of Satan like that which exists in Christianity. The Hebrew religion presents Satan as one of God's helpers - a being that tests the faith of individuals for God. In the Hebrew religion there is no "war in heaven" or "fall from grace".

The Christian concept of Satan comes from Zoroastrianism. Early Christianity adopted Zoroastrian mythology and the concepts of Zoroastrian dualism. The word devil does not appear in the Torah or the Old Testament because the word "devil" comes from the Persian word daeva, which was used by Zoroastrians to describe evil spirits.

The Zoroastrian religion believed in one god, Ahura Mazda, who was completely good. In opposition to Ahura Mazda was Angra Mainyu, the evil one. Pre-Christian image of Angra Mainyu. According to Zoroastrian mythology these two beings were almost equally powerful and they were locked in a cosmic battle of good vs.

Angra Mainyu, according to the mythology, rebelled against Ahura Mazda and is responsible for all of the ills of the world, while Ahura Mazda is responsible for all of the good things.

On the day of final judgment Zoroastrians believe that Ahura Mazda will defeat Angra Mainyu and banish him, as well as all evil, from the universe forever. It is a matter of historical fact that this mythology of the Zoroastrians existed before the advent of the Christian religion, and the transmission of this mythology to Jews within the Babylonian empire is also a matter of recorded history.

Early Christianity developed among Greek speaking and Aramaic speaking Jews. The word Christ itself is Greek and means "anointed one". The first references to "Christianity" began to emerge around CE in Greek speaking regions around the Mediterranean Sea.

Paul, the apostle who is said to have spread the message of Christianity, spent his time promoting the religion in Greece. Some of them asked, "What is this babbler trying to say? I see that in every way you are very religious. Now what you worship as something unknown I am going to proclaim to you. He has given proof of this to all men by raising him from the dead. The fact of the matter is, however, that the concept of a single god, creator of the universe, had been log established in Greece on philosophical grounds.

As early Christianity developed in Greece it was heavily influenced by the Greek concepts of god and providence. Clement of Alexandria, who was born in Athens around CE, was a highly influential early Christian theologian.

Clement was a Greek and infused Christianity with a strong element of Platonic philosophy. Clement's attacks on other Greek philosophies is indicative of the interactions between Christianity and Greek philosophy of his time.

The following quotes are taken from Clement's Stromata , written in CE. But he who proclaims the truth is to be prevented from leaving behind him what is to benefit posterity? It is a good thing, I reckon, to leave to posterity good children. This is the case with children of our bodies.

But words are the progeny of the soul. Here Clement is discussing the issue of whether or not Christians should leave behind writings or reject writings as materialistic and embrace oral tradition instead.

Clement was a well educated Greek from a well off background, and thus he believed that Christians should embrace philosophy and literature, things that earlier Christians had opposed. These arts, therefore, if not conjoined with philosophy, will be injurious to every one. For Plato openly called sophistry "an evil art. Thus the truth-loving Plato says, as if divinely inspired, "Since I am such as to obey nothing but the word, which, after reflection, appears to me the best.

For to cheat one's self of the truth is bad; but to speak the truth, and to hold as our opinions positive realities, is good. This, then, "the wisdom of the world is foolishness with God," and of those who are "the wise the Lord knoweth their thoughts that they are vain.

For it is written well in Jeremiah, "Let not the wise man glory in his wisdom, and let not the mighty man glory in his might, and let not the rich man glory in his riches: What would become known as the Christian movement began among the poor and uneducated, which is a major reason why there are no writings from the earliest "Christians". It is within the Greek culture, and through the Greek influence, that Christianity gained the intellectual fortitude, as well as the credibility, to expand beyond the simple moralistic movement of its origin.

The god of Christianity was heavily influenced by the god of Plato and Aristotle. The god of Plato and Aristotle is the all knowing and all powerful creator of the universe and instrument of "final causes". The god of Plato and Aristotle was a philosophically derived concept though, and not to be worshiped - nor did their god love and care.

The Zoroastrian god of love and forgiveness was merged with the Platonic god of omnipotence and infinity to create the all knowing, all powerful, and all loving god of Christianity. Plato, who lived between and BCE, believed in the immortality of the soul and in the existence of two forms of reality, the corrupt material world that we experience while we are alive on earth and another perfect spiritual world where the soul goes after death.

Plato thought that truth came from the soul, while falsehood came from the natural world. Aristotle, while more of a naturalist than Plato, accepted Plato's view of god and added that whatever has a use must be the product of an intelligent creator, thus all things in nature that have a function must have been created by god.

Aristotle extended the teleology of Socrates into a system of natural philosophy that he used to describe all of the phenomena of nature, especially the phenomena of life. Teleology is a doctrine that attempts to explain the universe in terms of ends or "final causes". Teleology is based on the proposition that the universe has design and purpose.

In Aristotelian philosophy the explanation of, or justification for, a phenomenon or process is to be found not only in the immediate cause, but also in the "final cause"— the reason for which the phenomenon exists or was created.

Now surely as in intelligent action, so in nature; and as in nature, so it is in each action, if nothing interferes. Now intelligent action is for the sake of an end; therefore the nature of things also is so. Thus if a house, e. Each step then in the series is for the sake of the next; and generally art partly completes what nature cannot bring to a finish, and partly imitates her.

If, therefore, artificial products are for the sake of an end, so clearly also are natural products. The relation of the later to the earlier terms of the series is the same in both.

This is most obvious in the animals other than man: Wherefore people discuss whether it is by intelligence or by some other faculty that these creatures work, spiders, ants, and the like. By gradual advance in this direction we come to see clearly that in plants too that is produced which is conducive to the end-leaves, e. If then it is both by nature and for an end that the swallow makes its nest and the spider its web, and plants grow leaves for the sake of the fruit and send their roots down not up for the sake of nourishment, it is plain that this kind of cause is operative in things which come to be and are by nature.

And since 'nature' means two things, the matter and the form, of which the latter is the end, and since all the rest is for the sake of the end, the form must be the cause in the sense of 'that for the sake of which'.

It is plain then that nature is a cause, a cause that operates for a purpose. Opposition to the ancient Greek concept of evolution was an integral part of the early development of Christianity.

The philosophy and culture of Christianity has its roots among the anti-Epicurean philosophers of Greece. Anti-Epicurean philosophy of Greece was merged with Christianity by early Greek theologians, whose works became the basis for later Christian theology. Both directly and indirectly, Christian theology was heavily influenced by Platonic philosophy from this early point on.

This is not to say that Christian theologians accepted every philosophical principle of Plato, they did not, but Platonic views had become such an integrated part of some segments of Greek and Jewish society by the time Christianity came along that many Platonic views had ceased to be strictly identified with Plato and were just popularly held concepts that evolved and integrated into various other philosophical and religious systems. Plato was embraced by early Christians, but even he was rejected as time went on and Christian ideology become increasingly anti-philosophical and opposed to all people who were associated with "the pagan times".

Most important, however, was the conflict between the early Christians and the other schools of philosophy, namely the Epicureans. The early Christians saw Epicureanism and other forms of natural philosophy as the main ideologies that they were struggling against. The writings of the early Christian fathers are littered with references to Epicureanism, Anaxagoras, and Democritus. Likewise, the naturalistic philosophers saw Christianity as a growing negative influence in the civilized world as well.

One of the most striking books written by the early Christians is perhaps Refutation of All Heresies by Hippolytus of Rome. It is not known when Hippolytus was born, but he is thought to have died around CE. What makes Refutation of All Heresies so extraordinary is that it is a collection and explanation of all of the most well known naturalistic philosophies of the time, which the work then goes on to refute.

The work stated to Christians that the ideas held by the naturalistic philosophers were heretical. Refutation of All Heresies now provides one of the fullest explanations of the Greek philosophies because it is one of the fullest accounts that remains of these teachings the originals were destroyed by the Christians. Among moral philosophers are Socrates, pupil of Archelaus the physicist, and Plato the pupil of Socrates. This speculator combined three systems of philosophy.

Among logicians is Aristotle, pupil of Plato. He systematized the art of dialectics. Among the Stoic logicians were Chrysippus and Zeno. Epicurus, however, advanced an opinion almost contrary to all philosophers. Pyrrho was an Academic; this speculator taught the in-comprehensibility of everything. The Brahmins among the Indians, and the Druids among the Celts, and Hesiod devoted themselves to philosophic pursuits.

It is said that Thales of Miletus, one of the seven, wise men, first attempted to frame a system of natural philosophy. This person said that some such thing as water is the generative principle of the universe, and its end;--for that out of this, solidified and again dissolved, all things consist, and that all things are supported on it; from which also arise both earthquakes and changes of the winds and atmospheric movements, and that all things are both produced and are in a state of flux corresponding with the nature of the primary author of generation;.

Anaximander, then, was the hearer of Thales. Anaximander was son of Praxiadas, and a native of Miletus. This man said that the originating principle of existing things is a certain constitution of the Infinite, out of which the heavens are generated, and the worlds therein; and that this principle is eternal and undecaying, and comprising all the worlds. And he speaks of time as something of limited generation, and subsistence, and destruction.

This person declared the Infinite to be an originating principle and element of existing things, being the first to employ such a denomination of the originating principle. But, moreover, he asserted that there is an eternal motion, by the agency of which it happens that the heavens are generated; but that the earth is poised aloft, upheld by nothing, continuing on account of its equal distance from all the heavenly bodies ; And that man was, originally, similar to a different animal, that is, a fish.

And that winds are caused by the separation of very rarified exhalations of the atmosphere, and by their motion after they have been condensed. And that rain arises from earth's giving back the vapours which it receives from the clouds under the sun. And that there are flashes of lightning when the wind coming down severs the clouds. And that animals originally came into existence in moisture, and after this one from another; and that males are procreated when the seed secreted from the right parts adhered to the right parts of the womb, and that females are born when the contrary took place.

And with regard to animals, he affirms that the earth, being originally fire in its lower part, where the heat and cold were intermingled, both the rest of animals made their appearance, numerous and dissimilar, all having the same food, being nourished from mud; and their existence was of short duration, but afterwards also generation from one another arose unto them; and men were separated from the rest of the animal creation , and they appointed rulers, and laws, and arts, and cities, and the rest.

And he asserts that mind is innate in all animals alike; for that each, according to the difference of their physical constitution, employed mind , at one time slower, at another faster.

But Leucippus, an associate of Zeno, did not maintain the same opinion, but affirms things to be infinite, and always in motion, and that generation and change exist continuously.

And he affirms plenitude and vacuum to be elements. And he asserts that worlds are produced when many bodies are congregated and flow together from the surrounding space to a common point, so that by mutual contact they made substances of the same figure and similar in form come into connection; and when thus intertwined, there are transmutations into other bodies, and that created things wax and wane through necessity.

But what the nature of necessity is, Parmenides did not define. And Democritus was an acquaintance of Leucippus. Democritus, son of Damasippus, a native of Abdera, conferring with many gymnosophists among the Indians, and with priests in Egypt, and with astrologers and magi in Babylon, propounded his system. Now he makes statements similarly with Leucippus concerning elements, viz. And he maintained worlds to be infinite, and varying in bulk; and that in some there is neither sun nor moon, while in others that they are larger than with us, and with others more numerous.

And that intervals between worlds are unequal; and that in one quarter of space worlds are more numerous, and in another less so; and that some of them increase in bulk, but that others attain their full size, while others dwindle away and that in one quarter they are coming into existence, whilst in another they are failing; and that they are destroyed by clashing one with another.

And that some worlds are destitute of animals and plants, and every species of moisture. And that the earth of our world was created before that of the stars, and that the moon is underneath; next to it the sun; then the fixed stars.

And that neither the planets nor these fixed stars possess an equal elevation. And that the world flourishes, until no longer it can receive anything from without.

This philosopher turned all things into ridicule, as if all the concerns of humanity were deserving of laughter. Epicurus, however, advanced an opinion almost contrary to all. He supposed, as originating principles of all things, atoms and vacuity. He considered vacuity as the place that would contain the things that will exist, and atoms the matter out of which all things could be formed; and that from the concourse of atoms both the Deity derived existence, and all the elements, and all things inherent in them, as well as animals and other creatures ; so that nothing was generated or existed, unless it be from atoms.

And he affirmed that these atoms were composed of extremely small particles, in which there could not exist either a point or a sign, or any division; wherefore also he called them atoms.

And he concluded that the souls of men are dissolved along with their bodies, just as also they were produced along with them, for that they are blood, and that when this has gone forth or been altered, the entire man perishes; and in keeping with this tenet, Epicurus maintained that there are neither trials in Hades, nor tribunals of justice; so that whatsoever any one may commit in this life, that, provided he may escape detection, he is altogether beyond any liability of trial for it in a future state.

The opinions, therefore, of those who have attempted to frame systems of philosophy among the Greeks, I consider that we have sufficiently explained; and from these the heretics, taking occasion, have endeavoured to establish the tenets that will be after a short time declared. It seems, however, expedient, that first explaining the mystical rites and whatever imaginary doctrines some have laboriously framed concerning the stars, or magnitudes, to declare these; for heretics likewise, taking occasion from them, are considered by the multitude to utter prodigies.

Next in order we shall elucidate the feeble opinions advanced by these. The followers, however, of Anaxagoras of Clazomenae, and of Democritus, and of Epicurus, and multitudes of others, have given it as their opinion that the generation of the universe proceeds from infinite numbers of atoms; and we have previously made partial mention of these philosophers.

But Anaxagoras derives the universe from things similar to those that are being produced; whereas the followers of Democritus and Epicurus derived the universe from things both dissimilar to the entities produced , and devoid of passion, that is, from atoms.

But the followers of Heraclides of Pontus, and of Asclepiades, derived the universe from things dissimilar to the entities produced , and capable of passion, as if from incongruous corpuscles. But the disciples of Plato affirm that these entities are from three principles--God, and Matter, and Exemplar.

He divides matter, however, into four principles--fire, water, earth, and air. And he says that God is the Creator of this matter , and that Mind is its exemplar. The first and only one God , both Creator and Lord of all, had nothing coeval with Himself; not infinite chaos, nor measureless water, nor solid earth, nor dense air, not warm fire, nor refined spirit, nor the azure canopy of the stupendous firmament.

But He was One, alone in Himself. By an exercise of His will He created things that are, which antecedently had no existence, except that He willed to make them. For He is fully acquainted with whatever is about to take place, for foreknowledge also is present to Him. The different principles, however, of what will come into existence, He first fabricated, viz. And some objects He formed of one essence, but others He compounded from two, and others from three, and others from four.

And those formed of one substance were immortal, for in their case dissolution does not follow, for what is one will never be dissolved. Those, on the other hand, which are formed out of two, or three, or four substances, are dissoluble; wherefore also are they named mortal. For this has been denominated death; namely, the dissolution of substances connected. I now therefore think that I have sufficiently answered those endued with a sound mind, who, if they are desirous of additional instruction, and are disposed accurately to investigate the substances of these things, and the causes of the entire creation, will become acquainted with these points should they peruse a work of ours comprised under the title , Concerning the Substance of the Universe.

I consider, however, that at present it is enough to elucidate those causes of which the Greeks, not being aware, glorified, in pompous phraseology, the parts of creation, while they remained ignorant of the Creator. And from these the heresiarchs have taken occasion, and have transformed the statements previously made by those Greeks into similar doctrines, and thus have framed ridiculous heresies.

Such is the true doctrine in regard of the divine nature, O ye men, Greeks and Barbarians, Chaldeans and Assyrians, Egyptians and Libyans, Indians and Ethiopians, Celts, and ye Latins, who lead armies, and all ye that inhabit Europe, and Asia, and Libya.

And to you I am become an adviser, inasmuch as I am a disciple of the benevolent Logos, and hence humane, in order that you may hasten and by us may be taught who the true God is, and what is His well-ordered creation. Do not devote your attention to the fallacies of artificial discourses, nor the vain promises of plagiarizing heretics, but to the venerable simplicity of unassuming truth.

And by means of this knowledge you shall escape the approaching threat of the fire of judgment, and the rayless scenery of gloomy Tartarus, where never shines a beam from the irradiating voice of the Word! You shall escape the boiling flood of hell's eternal lake of fire and the eye ever fixed in menacing glare of fallen angels chained in Tartarus as punishment for their sins; and you shall escape the worm that ceaselessly coils for food around the body whose scum has bred it.

Now such torments as these shall thou avoid by being instructed in a knowledge of the true God. And thou shalt possess an immortal body, even one placed beyond the possibility of corruption, just like the soul.

And thou shalt receive the kingdom of heaven, thou who, whilst thou didst sojourn in this life, didst know the Celestial King. And thou shalt be a companion of the Deity, and a co-heir with Christ, no longer enslaved by lusts or passions, and never again wasted by disease.

For thou hast become God: This constitutes the import of the proverb, "Know thyself;" i. For with the knowledge of self is conjoined the being an object of God's knowledge, for thou art called by the Deity Himself. Be not therefore inflamed, O ye men, with enmity one towards another, nor hesitate to retrace with all speed your steps. For Christ is the God above all, and He has arranged to wash away sin from human beings, rendering regenerate the old man.

And God called man His likeness from the beginning, and has evinced in a figure His love towards thee. And provided thou obeyest His solemn injunctions, and becomest a faithful follower of Him who is good, thou shall resemble Him, inasmuch as thou shall have honour conferred upon thee by Him. This book is not only one the few remaining sources of information about the naturalistic philosophies of Greece that preceded Christianity, but it tells us the real story of the decline of Western Civilization.

All of the advanced knowledge and concepts of the ancient world were condemned by the Christians, considered heresies and eliminated. The principles that we understand today as being products of "modern science" were generally understood over 2, years ago, but the Christians denied them and destroyed almost all evidence of these ideas, the only real evidence remaining being their own denunciations of the ideas.

The work of the Greeks and Romans was not purely "philosophical" as we know the term today. The Greeks and Romans practiced science, thought they did not use the term. They conducted experiments on gravity that would not be duplicated again until the time of Galileo and Newton. They built machines, calculating devices, mechanical robots, and observational instruments.

All of this was destroyed by the Christians. The teachings of Epicurus were especially disdained and opposed by the Christians. It was the Epicurean school that developed the most coherent philosophical framework of materialism that integrated the concepts of many of the different naturalistic philosophers and combined the ideas of atoms and evolution as well as natural explanations for fossils and meteorological events.

For the Epicureans all the world was explainable through observation and reason. Epicurus himself is known to have been a very prolific writer, and he is thought to have written over books, based on titles that have been referenced in other works, but Epicurus himself was just one of many men who held naturalistic views.

All of the early Christian theologians taught against Epicurus and naturalistic understandings of the world. For, in the first place, he is of opinion that 'thunders, and lightnings, and rains are not the works of God,'--thus showing more clearly at last his Epicurean leanings; and in the second place, that 'even if one were to grant that these were the works of God, they are brought into existence not more for the support of us who are human beings, than for that of plants, and trees, and herbs, and thorns,'--maintaining, like a true Epicurean, that these things are the product of chance, and not the work of Providence.

For if these things are of no more use to us than to plants, and trees, and herbs, and thorns, it is evident either that they do not proceed from Providence at all, or from a providence which does not provide for us in a greater degree than for trees, and herbs, and thorns.

Now, either of these suppositions is impious in itself, and it would be foolish to refute such statements by answering any one who brought against us the charge of impiety; for it is manifest to every one, from what has been said, who is the person guilty of impiety. In the next place, he adds: We Christians, however, who are devoted to the worship of the only God, who created these things, feel grateful for them to Him who made them, because not only for us, but also on our account for the animals which are subject to us, He has prepared such a home, seeing 'He causeth the grass to grow for the cattle, and herb for the service of man, that He may bring forth food out of the earth, and wine that maketh glad the heart of man, and oil to make his face to shine, and bread which strengtheneth man's heart.

And one of our own wise men says somewhere: And do not say, What is this? On which account I am accustomed to wonder at the senselessness of the philosophers who follow Epicurus, who blame the works of nature, that they may show that the world is prepared and governed by no providence; but they ascribe the origin of all things to indivisible and solid bodies, from the fortuitous meetings of which they say that all things are and were produced.

I pass by the things relating to the work itself with which they find fault, in which matter they are ridiculously mad; I assume that which belongs to the subject of which we are now treating. He transformed the old, slow "half an orange peel" combustion chamber into a faster-burning, much more compact chamber that was basically just the valve cutouts plus spark-plug area.

The greatly improved Norton would have defeated the new Gilera-4s in GP racing that year, but Dunlop tires came apart on a couple of fast tracks and prevented what would otherwise have been runaway wins. Norton came back in and did the job - beating a potentially much more powerful Gilera.

People today, in the 4-valve era, forget this great lesson - that just cramming a bunch of mixture up into a tight, badly-shaped combustion chamber and setting it off does not equal power. Or, as the late Keith Duckworth put it, "People are mesmerized by airflow, never reflecting that they must burn all that air and fuel they are getting into their engines.

In place of Weslake's tangential intake, he biased his intakes to produce downdraft so that air flowed from the intake valves, across to the far cylinder wall, then down to the pison, across its crown, and back up the near cylinder wall. This, which he called "barrel motion",, is now called "tumble". The problem today is that too few builders realize there must be room in the combustion chamber for the turbulence needed for fast combustion.

They just add material to the piston wherever it is easiest until they get the The piston now comes so close to the head that there really is NO combustion space. Any tumble-generated turbulence is damped out as the piston rises close to TDC, so they are having to use very long ignition timings for best torque.

In some cases, like the truly terrible 5V Yamahas, the compromise really bites, so you can have either acceleration from high compression that kills flame speed on top, causing weak peak power or top-end by lowering the compression enough to get back some top-end flame speed , but not both. When I asked Claudio Domenicali at Ducati how they have been able to shorten stroke again and again and still have competitive engines, while both Suzuki and Kawasaki have made new, shorter-stroke models that were slower than previous longer-stroke versions, he replied, "I cannot speak for other manufacturers, but in our case, we use a device like a small anemometer, placed in the cylinder.

Then we vary the intake downdraft angle and port sizes until we get the tumble motion that our experience shows to be necessary. Anyway, that is the modern combustion chamber conundrum in a nutshell.

Another problem is a social one. Racers don't mind being considered "advanced", but no one like to be thought "retarded". But where combustion is concerned, the more ignition timing your engine needs, the worse its combustion is revealed to be. Some people just can't get past the old idea that needing a lot of ignition advance is good. The reverse is true. A classic example of a bad engine is the old Honda twin of the s. Its tall piston dome and degree valve angle made it into a heat-gatherer, and air just hates to go into a burning hot cylinder.

It is delightful to be rid of air cooling at last! I have to go on another trip weekend after this, but am resolved to write the vaporization article you have asked for thereafter.

I've just finished writing a "engines book", so there is more time available for other things. Update from Jim to Kevin. I forwarded your info to Ron Jewel who has accepted that lower compression might be better if it rids the combustion chamber of much of that annoying dome.

As the following graph shows, very little low end torque as lost, but torque and power from HP peak to rev limit was greatly improved that's where Kenny needs the extra power on mile flat tracks! This is a great improvement, but the Honda and Yamaha s that RLJ mods both with smaller combustion chambers and flatter pistons at And Ron notes that his Superflow Flowbench indicates all three brand ports being nearly identical after porting is completed.

So work remains to be done perhaps in the combustion chamber to copy the shape and dimensions of the others to make the Kawasakis match the performance of the Hondas and Yamahas.

I had a fellow dyno tune on my shaft dyno of course a Kawasaki KZ turned into a cc NHRA pro stock dragbike that seems to have a similar dilemma. This drag engine has a huge cast MTC head with hemi combustion chambers that are each surely chock full of dome at TDC to obtain the diesel-like compression ratio these guys run. Perhaps what we have learned from your history lesson, and from RLJ's and my own actual experience can help the ProStock bike owner find the 50 extra HP he needs to be competitive!

Thanks much for the great help, as always. The drag race guys historically want a lot of compression to snatch the tire loose and get that foot time. This may be the place where a person has to decide whether a really big project is warranted- i. That graph is eloquent! It says what I have tried to explain to myslef and others in the past- that torque gains from compression at low revs can esily turn into slow combustion, heat loss, and fading torque at higher revs. They have also reshaped their combustion chamber while slightly reducing compression ratio.

Octane cheating either intentional or otherwise seems worse this season than ever before! Why do we suspect that? We can hear pump gas detonation on the dyno more this year than in years past!

Often, when we experience unusual detonation we can buy 93 octane from another gas station, and the knock goes away. Is your state or province any different? How can we hear detonation occurring on the dyno? Sean Ray learned about listening to engine knock several years ago at Delphi where he is employed as a calibration engineer. They drilled a hole in the control room wall, bolted the copper tube to the Hyundai engine and inserted the other end into the control room, just dangling in the air.

Sean brought the copper-tube deto sensor concept from his Delphi engine dyno cel to DTR several years ago. We now listen for detonation here and usually can abort any test before engine damage occurs. Three or four audible clicks and we quit the test. Last season Sean and Tim Bender ran over max power dyno tests on one mule race engine for Hentges Racing, and lost zero pistons because Sean could hear clicks and abort. During similar max power testing in years prior to the copper tube, Tim used to bring a box of pistons and a jug of muriatic acid to clean the bores after seizing.

Back then it was more wrenching and less testing. This means that a few more intermittent clicks of deto can be heard and tolerated by the engine before really bad things happen. Four-stroke piston seizures from deto are rare.

Instead, when continual deto makes spark plug ground straps red hot, preignition can occur which can create the worst damage!

Then, instead of blowing headgaskets we might see studs being pulled out of the crankcase threads, conrods bend or break and cylinder and head gasket sealing surfaces fried into junk as though attacked by a plasma torch! Tune those high boost engines! With proper tuning for the available octane, stock fasteners and headgaskets will survive incredible power increases!

But now, after this dyno tuning session Gary can probably run his sled anywhere with any octane gas. So adding boost, especially with no intercooler, is almost guaranteed to create knock. With psi boost, my Whipplecharged 5.

The knock-induced retarded timing severely limited the power increase. As shown in the following graph, HP is improved from midrange to top end. And note the precision of the control of fuel flow by the Power Commander. Note that torque has not yet peaked at But if I stayed into the throttle the torque and HP peaks would surely have gone beyond 10,, totally unnecessary with a big boosted engine like his.

So Gus is going to lengthen the pipes enough to bring peak power down into the RPM range. DA is a combination of baro pressure, temperature, and humidity water grains per pound of air. Then using just the altitude half of a Mikuni Pocket Tune sliderule, perfect jetting can be maintained. Muffler testing, HiJacker testing, all with stock turbo outlet pipe. We have an all-motor class in the Lakeracer division! Also Tuesday we're doing all the Cats, plus hilldrag sleds the Michael Koz and Jeff Cerio need to sneak in for a quick tune.

Also Ron's brother Randy tuning his HO for max power on pump gas. But decent air for tuning a race bike! For long term DTR members I need to clarify the difference, and for new DTR members I need to explain the channel information in our dyno printouts, and what each channel means to us. Those are perfectly accurate. And since the speed of sound increases with temperature, the HP peak in the field may be at lower RPM trail riders on-off-on throttle or at higher RPM lake runners or mountain climbers who might spend minutes at WOT.

Complicated initially but it takes into consideration the twisting force and how quickly it can be done RPM. HP is what we need to create acceleration and maintain top speed.

STPTrq Clb-ft this is the twisting force, or torque that the crankshaft is exerting at any given RPM, corrected to 60 degrees sea level barometer But my spindly legs can only muster 3 RPM! Not bad for a 62 year old. It takes HP to create acceleration.

FuelAB- fuel flow into the engine in pounds per hour. But combining the two flow readings is necessary for computing BSFC. Polaris uses this type of system. Early adventuresome guinea pigs including all of the current eastern US aftermarket sled modifiers and I proceeded to just tune engines blindly to max HP and beyond until engines seized.

But after our th piston or so, we realized that there was a pattern to this destruction if we went too far beyond max HP. Fuel flow is meaningful information and we finally understood that our race engines would make best power at. But today, with modern race engine configuration two stroke race engines can make best power closer to. They use high velocity, turbulent coolant flow to maximize heat transfer from hot engine parts to cold heat exchangers.

This reading can show leaner than the mechanical reading if oxygenated fuel is used. The math is done by the computer and SCFM is shown. If backpressure is lower, then power might be sacrificed. But then there is less possibility of detonation-producing active radicals being packed back into the combustion chamber by the pipe s return sound wave s. Also a 20 year old Black Magic triple made out of three twin cylinders on an old triple crankcase. Great fun for me since we haven't tuned any of these for many years!

I first met Paul about 40 yrs ago when he came into my welding supply to see if he could borrow a small cylinder of oxygen. I can't recall the outcome of that adventure.

Five minutes later, the Superbee was back in my parking lot--idling on maybe seven cylinders and with the hood buckled from the exploded air cleaner. True story, with no embelishment needed! Also doing their own muffler testing on a prepro XF turbo Hope the DynoCams will be running! There are times when we question a stock sled's ability to properly cool itself, much less one modified with higher than stock power levels. Last year, Boyesen sent me a billet water pump impeller for a Polaris twin that I would like to test.

Certainly controversial for those of us who are used to seeing. Sure, there are lots of powerful engines winning races with. From what I've seen here, yes! There are some odd articles by Kevin Cameron in our archives. But in those old scanned issues in the archives is a treasure trove of meaningful information.

Two monkeys with an instrumented dyno, and lots of tuning parts can create excellence! But we kept at it until we had relative perfection. The race team and Kevin came here several times to test and tune incredible Yamaha TZ 90ish HP at the output shaft bikes. Those were enjoyable, educational as much for me as for them! Over the years, Kevin would occasionally even consult with me on particular issues about what I might have experienced on my dyno.

It should be done methodically on a repeatable dyno with copper tube connected to the engine to listen for knock. Photo shows how we dyno tune quads, with measured fuel flow gravity fed from a Holley float bowl to the carbs. I like those new 50mm carbs too! Now the bike is fast. Expecting RWHP with 96 cubic inches, hence the need for larger injectors. Here's the aforementioned dyno starter drive sysem! Now we can remotely start engines from either driveshaft.

That's a Polaris sled ring gear bolted to a custom fabbed aluminum flywheel. Bring on those little vintage race engines! Below is a photo from inside the cold room, showing the three condenser units--each connected to one of the compressors outside the left wall.

Just visible behind the condenser stack is a 10" diameter air intake pipe that draws "makeup" air from the roof of the building.

As the engines consume air via an insulated duct from the opposite wall to the engine's airbox inlet , replacement air is drawn in to the area directly behind the condensors.

So we've put that session on hold until we figure out what is causing the grief. We're thinking now that it is exhaust temp creating this strange loss in power after some reasonable time at WOT. The probe in the muffler may be getting up to some temperature, and then the ECU drops the power level and causes underrevving.

So could they be lowering the exhaust valves slightly to choke off airflow? At any rate, Billy has eliminated the power dropoff by advancing his ignition timing with his buds computer. Rusty is planning to do the same with his stocker, and test it this weekend. Now, advancing the timing reduces exhaust temp the fire stays inside the combustion chamber instead of blowing out the exhaust ports, hopefully making more cylinder pressure and torque , and maybe Billy advanced his enough to heep the muffler temp below the threshold temp.

We'll know more about this phenomenon next week, and hope we can reschedule the Etec test session. When it comes to making best HP without detonation, cool engines rule.

Some engines need lots of heat to run cleanly. Among worst were the Vmax 4s with those awful racked Mikuni carbs.

Those who tried running with the F thermostat removed were rewarded with F coolant temp and continual gurgling from poor vaporization. But most engines will run cleanly and happily with F coolant temperature, and will make way more power than they will at F. If we can get that engine to run at F or even cooler, it will be a better machine.

Joe from Boyesen Engineering sent me a billet prototype high-flow water pump impeller to test. If we can increase coolant velocity and turbulence through the engine, and supplement heat exchanger capacity, F or cooler is surely within reach! I subscribe to Cycle World magazine primarily to read Kevin Cameron's monthly one page TDC column, and to try to absorb detailed technical articles he writes that appear in about every other issue.

According to KC, turbulent high velocity coolant is vastly more effective in removing heat from combustion chamber "domes" than lazy slow moving coolant. Worse yet, is any area of stagnant coolant that rests against the domes' coolant side surfaces with slow or no movement which can create dangerous detonation causing hot-spots. Kevin describes large coolant volume cylinder heads as antique "bathtub" design. Shrink-wrapped covers create small but ample passages for high velocity coolant flow over the combustion chambers.

Some of the aftermarket snowmobile cylinder heads I see on the dyno look like bathtubs to me. On typical dyno tuneups especially this time of year it's more time and cost effective to dyno sled engines with their own coolant, letting the 7. To maintain consistancy, I like to measure head surface temp with an infrared gun before each dyno run. On most sleds, head surface temp runs about 20 degrees F lower than coolant temp, but this is not as important as doing each dyno run with similar engine and pipe temperature.

What I notice on some aftermarket cylinder heads is that ending surface temp after second dyno runs is sometimes much higher than what we usually see with stock heads. In the past I have dismissed this difference in being caused by different material finish shiny machined and anodized or powder coated billet instead of die or sand cast surfaces causing different infrared gun readings.

How bad is this? Kevin Cameron had suggested to Tim that the golf-cart-like transfer ports on the Exciter engine limited its potential. So Tim decided to widen the engine to allow room for larger transfer ports that he would create out of material welded on to the sides cylinders. This meant having the Crankshop build him a wider crankshaft, then saw a crankcase and cylinder head in half, then weld in an inch or so of material to allow bore spacing to be wider, accomodating normal-size transfer ports.

Tim's problems began when the one-piece cylinder head was widened and welded back together. The Exciter 's coolant normally enters the front of the head in the center, then is forced around each combustion chamber surface, then rejoins as it exits the rear center of the head at the thermostat housing.

Unbeknownst to Tim and me, this allowed stagnant water to lay on the combustion chambers instead of flowing over them. On the dyno, even with lots of water flowing to cool the engine, we never could create low BSFC without detonation.

But the engine made more HP than before and Tim was anxious to test the engine in his race sled before going to the annual big oval race at Eagle River. I went with Tim to a nearby frozen lake where the night before he had snowblown an oval track on the shallow end. When he began doing laps with his dyno-tuned engine Tim encountered detonation with the same jets, same gas as we had dyno'd with the day before.

Jets that were dandy for 15 seconds on the dyno were causing deto on the track after 20 seconds. The 48mm carbs required about 15 sizes larger jets to be deto-free, and that extra fuel drowned the HP added by the larger transfers. This was perplexing to both of us. At the end of the day, Tim's high HP wide engine was no faster than the narrow golf-cart Exciter race engine he had run previously.

With his other race engines, winter dyno jets were within a few sizes of what he needed for 20 laps. That evening, one of us remembered the widened cylinder head. I like to think that I came up with the solution to the problem, but it probably was Tim. One of us called the other, and we discussed the possibility of a problem with combustion chamber coolant flow. Tim went to the shop at 10pm, and upon inspection found that there was an open passage in the widened area for coolant to flow directly from the front center head inlet to the rear center outlet!

He mixed up some Devcon epoxy filler and goobered that unintended passage closed. As intended, coolant would once again be forced to the outsides of the head, pass over the chambers then rejoin at the rear before exiting the engine. The next day back at the lake, Tim was able to jet down all of the 15 sizes and then some and the HP was back, deto was gone.

More races would be won. Bottom line--stagnant coolant was surely the culprit. I'm not suggesting that all billet replacement heads are low velocity bathtub design--in each case I don't know what sort of internal passages were created by the person who programmed the milling machine to carve out the "tub".

But my opinion is that before an aftermarket head is installed in might be good to compare coolant volume between the stock head and the replacement head. If the replacement head has larger capacity than the shrink-wrapped stocker I would question the design and ask why the volume is greater.

If the answer is "to help cool the engine" The factories' sled engine designers surely use dyno software that measures coolant flow in GPH, and that figure along with temperature rise in the coolant around each combustion chamber is necessary to correctly design the cooling passages in any cylinder head, either OEM or replacement. When it comes to snowmobile cylinder heads, cool-looking and big is not necessarily better. I won't be making jokes like that anymore! The driveshat had separated at both ends--from the rubber vibration dampener at the engine, and the automotive ujoint coupler at the absorber end.

But most importantly no one got hurt. Do I need a stronger driveshaft? Trying to assess this mess, like a forensic detective, I think this is what happened There just seems to be more torsional vibes with the big triples. But that didn't register with me never had that happen before , and it should have.

Brain failure one is I should have removed my adaptor, cleaned the tapers and started over. Not everyone has that. And that center self aligning bearing what's left of it is designed for the linkage of helicoptor rotor assemblies.

The aluminum part is custom made on CNC machinery. New parts are on the way here. We cooled the crankcase for a few minutes before the next run. I bolted from the control console, grabbing one of the 25 year old, but previously unused Halon fire extinguishers, and ran into the dyno room and with two pounds of Halon completely extinguished the fire.

But with the fire extinguished, there was still a substantial amount of oil left on the dyno table beneath the sled. That unburned oil, instead would surely have been spewed and drizzled in front of the smooth rubber track with instant loss of traction and directional control!

Without these features, the fire on the dyno table and the potential real-world scenario could have been much, much worse. Why not add some sort of diaper-like oil catcher like the top fuel racers use? It would be wise to deal with the inevitable spewing oil ahead of time. From now on, people bringing heavily boosted engines to DTR must endure a pre-test fire drill. The new system is up and running perfectly. All new electronics, computer circuitry, and control console that took a couple of weeks to install properly.

The operating system is quite different from the old 24 years old , and has taken some getting used to. I used my HTG Edge triple to verify the new system. Tuned to max power on pump gas on the system, it made HP.

As Brett gauranteed, the engine made HP on the It's just math--torque and RPM, but it made me feel real good to see it myself on my own sled that has dyno runs on the , and now 90 on the new system during training.

And now instead of manually adding torque to make up for the 6. Remember--the computer system in the console was designed 30 years ago, and times and speeds have changed.

The recorded data 10x per second and the new stuff records x per second. Sean and I are experimenting with dragrace acceleration tests that now can be viewed on the "real time" graph. Some of that cooling system is sitting on the dyno table visible on the engine room webcam.

Also water vapor in the outside air will be removed by the evaporators. Tuning EFI sleds for winter operation in 75 degree F air is useless. Because of that I've recommended all EFI sled owners wait for cold air before dyno tuning--so that meant a logjam of sleds to tune as soon as winter arrived. So having winter air for tuning regardless of the weather forecast will be a dandy thing, as we should see shortly. Expect this system to be installed and operating this month.

I wil have a mule engine on the dyno to baseline perfectly with the current system, and then make sure we get the same accuracy with the new equipment and electronics. Two weeks ago Woody's Performance Center from Maine Woody's photo appears on the homepage with his mad Methanol Supercharged Apex brought a perproduction Apex for assessment.

This session was done on Yamaha's behalf, and as such they have requested the results be posted mid August. You Yamaha guys are going to enjoy this data. Rob S will be here to tune ignition. I bought a 6. While I enjoyed the variable speed rear wheel drive, the engine pissed me off. I've been mowing lawns for over 50 years. But this new 6. It just annoyed me. Recently I ran accross this website https: Testing is being done on the SF sled driveshaft dyno connected to the output shaft of the YZ trans.

The toothed belt sprockets are mounted on 1. Like any gear reduction, this drive system converts a certain percentage of the engine power into heat from friction. This loss has been accurately measured, and compensated for in our dyno calibration process. Since HP loss from friction increases exponentially as the square of engine speed, the following percentages must be added to raw calibration torque numbers to be correct at the RPM where peak horsepower occurs.

Also figured into the friction loss is a GMN overrunning sprag clutch that is used in the electric start system on the engine drive shaft. The net weight value of the arm itself is The raw torque value of the hanging scuba tank is That is reduced by the It had to be a cheater.

During the Shootout we make on-site real-time comparison of stock vs trail mod difficult since we public address and listen to ' results of stockers and ' results of aftermarket trail mod sleds. But after getting back home and assessing ' results of stockers I can see clearly the supposedly stock hp Xfire was much more powerful than that.

Once again, mia f'ing culpa. But even though the Unlimited Class results are tainted by this, the class and class results are as they should be. When we decided at the last minute to have an unlimited stock class to differentiate from the 's we included the two big Arctic Cats-- Z1 turbo and the Crossfire They were already bringing a trailer-full of Cats and Yamahas to dyno certify, and a second trailer was a lot to ask.

There should be no incentive for them to cheat one over one another since they were the same brand. So we allowed Big Moose to keep the sleds, no dyno certification and lock-up, let them run in the Unlimited Stock class amongst themselves. AC lobbied for some miles on the Z1 for breakin and we concurred that that was acceptable, and Big Moose was allowed to run the sled on the trail for the breakin miles AC requested with no supervision.

The Z1 was surely left stock--the timed performance was commensurate with power to weight ratio. It's reasonable to let those Z1 results be included in the Shootout. But for now, in the interest of fairness to everyone including the very important aftermarket participants, the Crossfire results should be deleted. He indicated no knowledge of this cheating by Vince. I can accept that, because I'm sure that Phil and Jon Martin both have IQ's high enough to realize the negative results of this buffoonery--make the Z1 look slow so no one will want to buy them?

Make their Crossfire sleds look slow? George Taylor and I had stressed to all dealers the need for a flawless Shootout and this is what we got. Kevin Cameron Emailed a few times: This is fascinating about the plugs loosening. I will ask in aircraft engine circles to see if they are familiar with this. One interesting point is that at least some versions of the BMW cc 4-cylinder turbo F1 engine had a small, spring-loaded relief valve in each cylinder.

That indicates that they had some bad events that needed radical measures to control them. I've seen insulators broken by deto. I think your idea about yielding of the threads is the explanation, but with the added notion that each pressure spike causes some pretty stout sound waves to rattle back and forth many times through the metal. It might be the cumulative result rather than the single spikes.

Much the same explanation as why ignition-side flywheels may slowly work their way off the crankpin in engines turning higher-than-stock rpm. The force of vibration isn't enough to push the wheel off the pin, but the general disturbance of the flywheel, being set vibrating, lets it work loose.

Some of the early castings used on testing of the engines destined for the B cracked and in some cases whole pieces of the heads were broken loose so they fell out once the sheet-metal cooling air baffles were removed.

They always had piston temperature problems until they adopted only postwar toroidal oil jet manifolds in those engines. Those guys that make the vehicle shakers, MTS, also make a device they call a "gun banger". I am suspecting that a lesser pressure in psi, but applied to the whole inner combustion chamber surface, would deform it enough to perhaps loosen the threads. BMW must have had some good reason to fit their race engines with those relief valves. Do you suppose they had this trouble?

I suspect that only very high BMEP engines have this problem. Imagine combustion proceeding, and the flame front moves out from the central plug.

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