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The eastern part of the Oregon Trail spanned part of the future state of Kansas , and nearly all of what are now the states of Nebraska and Wyoming. The western half of the trail spanned most of the future states of Idaho and Oregon. The Oregon Trail was laid by fur traders and traders from about to , and was only passable on foot or by horseback. By , when the first migrant wagon train was organized in Independence, Missouri , a wagon trail had been cleared to Fort Hall, Idaho.
Wagon trails were cleared increasingly farther west, and eventually reached all the way to the Willamette Valley in Oregon, at which point what came to be called the Oregon Trail was complete, even as almost annual improvements were made in the form of bridges, cutoffs, ferries, and roads, which made the trip faster and safer.
From the early to mids and particularly through the years —69 the Oregon Trail and its many offshoots were used by about , settlers, farmers, miners, ranchers, and business owners and their families. The eastern half of the trail was also used by travelers on the California Trail from , Mormon Trail from , and Bozeman Trail from , before turning off to their separate destinations. Use of the trail declined as the first transcontinental railroad was completed in , making the trip west substantially faster, cheaper, and safer.
Today, modern highways, such as Interstate 80 and Interstate 84 , follow parts of the same course westward and pass through towns originally established to serve those using the Oregon Trail.
The first land route across what is now the United States was mapped by the Lewis and Clark Expedition between and Lewis and Clark initially believed they had found a practical overland route to the west coast; however, the two passes they found going through the Rocky Mountains , Lemhi Pass and Lolo Pass , turned out to be much too difficult for prairie schooner wagons to pass through without considerable road work.
This was ultimately a shorter and faster route than the one they followed west. This route had the disadvantages of being much too rough for wagons and controlled by the Blackfoot Indians. Even though Lewis and Clark had only traveled a narrow portion of the upper Missouri River drainage and part of the Columbia River drainage, these were considered the two major rivers draining most of the Rocky Mountains, and the expedition confirmed that there was no "easy" route through the northern Rocky Mountains as Jefferson had hoped.
Nonetheless, this famous expedition had mapped both the eastern and western river valleys Platte and Snake Rivers that bookend the route of the Oregon Trail and other emigrant trails across the continental divide—they just had not located the South Pass or some of the interconnecting valleys later used in the high country.
They did show the way for the mountain men , who within a decade would find a better way across, even if it was not to be an easy way. Two movements of PFC employees were planned by Astor, one detachment to be sent to the Columbia River by the Tonquin and the other overland under an expedition led by Wilson Price Hunt.
Hunt and his party were to find possible supply routes and trapping territories for further fur trading posts. Upon arriving at the river in March , the Tonquin crew began construction of what became Fort Astoria.
The ship left supplies and men to continue work on the station and ventured north up the coast to Clayoquot Sound for a trading expedition. While anchored there, Jonathan Thorn insulted an elder Tla-o-qui-aht who was previously elected by the natives to negotiate a mutually satisfactory price for animal pelts. Soon after, the vessel was attacked and overwhelmed by the indigenous Clayoquot killing most of the crew except its Quinault interpreter, who later told the PFC management at Fort Astoria of the destruction.
The next day, the ship was blown up by surviving crew members. Under Hunt, fearing attack by the Niitsitapi , the overland expedition veered south of Lewis and Clark's route into what is now Wyoming and in the process passed across Union Pass and into Jackson Hole , Wyoming.
They abandoned their horses at the Snake River, made dugout canoes, and attempted to use the river for transport. After a few days' travel they soon discovered that steep canyons, waterfalls and impassable rapids made travel by river impossible.
Too far from their horses to retrieve them, they had to cache most of their goods and walk the rest of the way to the Columbia River where they made new boats and traveled to the newly established Fort Astoria.
The expedition demonstrated that much of the route along the Snake River plain and across to the Columbia was passable by pack train or with minimal improvements, even wagons. The group planned to retrace the path followed by the overland expedition back up to the east following the Columbia and Snake rivers. Fear of an Indian attack near Union Pass in Wyoming forced the group further south where they discovered South Pass, a wide and easy pass over the Continental Divide.
Louis in the spring of The route they had used appeared to potentially be a practical wagon route, requiring minimal improvements, and Stuart's journals provided a meticulous account of most of the route. He had just completed a journey through much of western Canada and most of the Columbia River drainage system. He was mapping the country for possible fur trading posts. Along the way he camped at the confluence of the Columbia and Snake rivers and posted a notice claiming the land for Britain and stating the intention of the North West Company to build a fort on the site Fort Nez Perces was later established there.
Astor, concerned the British navy would seize their forts and supplies in the War of , sold to the North West Company in their forts, supplies and furs on the Columbia and Snake River. The North West Company started establishing more forts and trading posts of its own. The HBC had nearly a complete monopoly on trading and most governing issues in the Columbia District, or Oregon Country as it was referred to by the Americans, and also in Rupert's Land. That year the British parliament passed a statute applying the laws of Upper Canada to the district and giving the HBC power to enforce those laws.
In theory, the Treaty of Ghent , which ended the War of , restored possession of Oregon territory to the United States. By overland travel, American missionaries and early settlers initially mostly ex-trappers started showing up in Oregon around In the early s thousands of American settlers arrived and soon greatly outnumbered the British settlers in Oregon. These new emigrants often arrived in Oregon tired, worn out, nearly penniless, with insufficient food or supplies, just as winter was coming on.
McLoughlin would later be hailed as the Father of Oregon. By the HBC started using two brigades, each setting out from opposite ends of the express route—one from Fort Vancouver on the Columbia River and the other from York Factory on Hudson Bay—in spring and passing each other in the middle of the continent.
The fort quickly became the center of activity in the Pacific Northwest. Every year ships would come from London to the Pacific via Cape Horn to drop off supplies and trade goods in its trading posts in the Pacific Northwest and pick up the accumulated furs used to pay for these supplies. It was the nexus for the fur trade on the Pacific Coast; its influence reached from the Rocky Mountains to the Hawaiian Islands , and from Russian Alaska into Mexican-controlled California.
At its pinnacle in about , Fort Vancouver and its Factor manager watched over 34 outposts, 24 ports, 6 ships, and about employees. When American emigration over the Oregon Trail began in earnest in the early s, for many settlers the fort became the last stop on the Oregon Trail where they could get supplies, aid and help before starting their homesteads. Fort Victoria was erected in and became the headquarters of operations in British Columbia, eventually growing into modern-day Victoria , the capital city of British Columbia.
By the HBC had three forts: With minor exceptions they all gave substantial and often desperately needed aid to the early Oregon Trail pioneers.
When the fur trade slowed in because of fashion changes in men's hats, the value of the Pacific Northwest to the British was seriously diminished. They used most of the York Express route through northern Canada. In , the Oregon Treaty ending the Oregon boundary dispute was signed with Britain.
The British lost the land north of the Columbia River they had so long controlled. The new Canada—United States border was established much further north at the 49th parallel.
The treaty granted the HBC navigation rights on the Columbia River for supplying their fur posts, clear titles to their trading post properties allowing them to be sold later if they wanted, and left the British with good anchorages at Vancouver and Victoria. It gave the United States what it mostly wanted, a "reasonable" boundary and a good anchorage on the West Coast in Puget Sound. While there were almost no United States settlers in the future state of Washington in , the United States had already demonstrated it could induce thousands of settlers to go to the Oregon Territory, and it would be only a short time before they would vastly outnumber the few hundred HBC employees and retirees living in Washington.
These descriptions were mainly based on the relative lack of timber and surface water. The images of sandy wastelands conjured up by terms like "desert" were tempered by the many reports of vast herds of millions of Plains Bison that somehow managed to live in this "desert". The next available land for general settlement, Oregon, appeared to be free for the taking and had fertile lands, disease free climate yellow fever and malaria were prevalent in much of the Missouri and Mississippi River drainage then , extensive uncut, unclaimed forests, big rivers, potential seaports, and only a few nominally British settlers.
Fur trappers, often working for fur traders, followed nearly all possible streams looking for beaver in the years —40 the fur trade was active. Besides discovering and naming many of the rivers and mountains in the Intermountain West and Pacific Northwest, they often kept diaries of their travels and were available as guides and consultants when the trail started to become open for general travel.
The fur trade business wound down to a very low level just as the Oregon trail traffic seriously began around They were looking for a safe location to spend the winter. Smith reasoned since the Sweetwater flowed east it must eventually run into the Missouri River. Trying to transport their extensive fur collection down the Sweetwater and North Platte River, they found after a near disastrous canoe crash that the rivers were too swift and rough for water passage. On July 4, , they cached their furs under a dome of rock they named Independence Rock and started their long trek on foot to the Missouri River.
Upon arriving back in a settled area they bought pack horses on credit and retrieved their furs. They had re-discovered the route that Robert Stuart had taken in —eleven years before.
Thomas Fitzpatrick was often hired as a guide when the fur trade dwindled in Jedediah Smith was killed by Indians around Up to 3, mountain men were trappers and explorers , employed by various British and United States fur companies or working as free trappers, who roamed the North American Rocky Mountains from about to the early s.
They usually traveled in small groups for mutual support and protection. Trapping took place in the fall when the fur became prime. Mountain men primarily trapped beaver and sold the skins.
Some were more interested in exploring the West. The trading supplies were brought in by a large party using pack trains originating on the Missouri River. These pack trains were then used to haul out the fur bales. They normally used the north side of the Platte River—the same route used 20 years later by the Mormon Trail.
For the next 15 years the American rendezvous was an annual event moving to different locations, usually somewhere on the Green River in the future state of Wyoming. Each rendezvous, occurring during the slack summer period, allowed the fur traders to trade for and collect the furs from the trappers and their Indian allies without having the expense of building or maintaining a fort or wintering over in the cold Rockies.
In only a few weeks at a rendezvous a year's worth of trading and celebrating would take place as the traders took their furs and remaining supplies back east for the winter and the trappers faced another fall and winter with new supplies. Trapper Jim Beckwourth described the scene as one of "Mirth, songs, dancing, shouting, trading, running, jumping, singing, racing, target-shooting, yarns, frolic, with all sorts of extravagances that white men or Indians could invent.
He had a crew that dug out the gullies and river crossings and cleared the brush where needed. This established that the eastern part of most of the Oregon Trail was passable by wagons. In the late s the HBC instituted a policy intended to destroy or weaken the American fur trade companies. Beginning in , it visited the American Rendezvous to undersell the American traders—losing money but undercutting the American fur traders.
By the fashion in Europe and Britain shifted away from the formerly very popular beaver felt hats and prices for furs rapidly declined and the trapping almost ceased. Fur traders tried to use the Platte River, the main route of the eastern Oregon Trail, for transport but soon gave up in frustration as its many channels and islands combined with its muddy waters were too shallow, crooked and unpredictable to use for water transport.
The Platte proved to be unnavigable. The Platte River and North Platte River Valley, however, became an easy roadway for wagons, with its nearly flat plain sloping easily up and heading almost due west.
There were several U. He explored most of Idaho and the Oregon Trail to the Columbia. The account of his explorations in the west was published by Washington Irving in Army's Corps of Topographical Engineers and his guide Kit Carson led three expeditions from to over parts of California and Oregon./p>
I hate to keep harping on this, but the point must be made indelibly: The majority of people have refused to let go of this story even though it has been proven to be not only ineffective , but actually self-destructive , as humanity has struggled for millennia to find a way to live in peace and harmony. It will make you feel incredible by allowing you to notice how much of what is really good in another you are actually be able to see an acknowledge once you get your judgment even just a little out of the way.
The second of the Seven Simple Questions always seems rhetorical to me. To declare that we understand everything about God and life is sheer folly. Clearly, there is an information gap here. Clearly, all the data is not in. Yet some people believe that we have all the information that we need to live a completely and fruitful life.
Well, now that depends upon to whom one is speaking. Many say, the New Testament. Others say, no, in the Mishna. Others say, the Talmud. Others, the Rig Veda. Others, the Mahabharta and the Ramayana. Others, the Tao-te Ching. Others, The Master of Huai-nan. Others, the Pali Canon. Others, the Book of Mormon. Well, the point is, many people believe that Direct Revelation—that is, God speaking directly to Man—is found in the Holy Scriptures with which they feel most comfortable.
This makes it a little bit difficult for humans to find out what it is they may not fully understand about God and about life, because the words found in books other than those of our own spiritual tradition are considered to be inaccurate.
And books such as Conversations with God? Since speaking directly to the source of their religion, the faithful declare, God has come down with a very bad case of celestial laryngitis. No more speaking directly to humans is being done. Still, none of this is problematical, right? Because we know all that we need know, yes? We know enough to be able to create the collective and individual life of which humanity has long dreamed, do we not?
No, we do not. There is still something we do not fully understand…the understanding of which would change everything. When I was a young man there was a saying: Why does God allow bad things to happen to good people? But it takes such courage to admit even that , much less to offer some suggestions on what the missing data may be , that the question has effectively been closed for most religions—and therefore, by extension, for most of humanity.
So here is the irony: And to most people the idea that one person or two, a small collection or a little group here or there, may in fact have come to discover something more , or new, is absolute anathema. We do not and cannot seem to behold the miracle of love. I mean, true love. We therefore eliminate from our own good use anything and everything having to do with extra-sensory perception, mind fields, creative imagery, psychic insight, dream work, positive thinking, or any other non-measurable, inexplicable phenomena.
Let us say that you experience yourself wanting something desperately. Did you know that if you keep saying to yourself I want that! And that this announcement produces your continuing reality? Your Word Has Creative Power. This is because the universe has only one response in its vocabulary: It listens to you very carefully, and it listens most of all to what you are feeling.
The Engine of Creation is actually a magnet. We are talking about power here. The power of a magnet. Remember that a feeling is energy, and in the matter of energy, Like Attracts Like. If it were not, if the process was not always working, you could have a single very positive thought about something and that outcome would be made manifest in your reality without fail. But the process works all the time, not just part of the time, and is fed by that which you feel most deeply, most consistently.
So a single very positive thought in a whirlwind of not-so-positive ideas and projections is not likely to produce the desired result. The trick is to stay positive in a sea of negativity. The trick is to know that the process is working even when it looks as if it is not. That is what we are talking about right here, in this conversation.
That is what will turn this storm front around. I have given you just one example above. Does it make complete and total sense for humanity to have a conversation about this? Of course it does.
See how this lines up with what you were taught as a child or came to understand through the common culture. Promise yourself to actually make a study of it in the next year. Twelve months from today, add this to your discussions with others about the Seven Simple Questions. Always the toughest and most significant questions get back to us; to ourselves; to that person in the mirror. We can externalize life all that we want to as long as we want, but at the end of the day, when the head hits the pillow, it comes down once again to The One Behind The Closed Eyes.
These observations, by the way, have applied to me. That is why I can offer this answer with such articulation. I am very clear what I have not understood, and that there is still so much, much more to understand. I did not understand until I turned 50 that the entire purpose of my life was to recreate myself anew in the next grandest version of the greatest vision ever I held about Who I Am.
I did not know that every act is an act of self-definition. You think your life is about you. I was made to understand that my life had nothing to do with me, but rather, with everyone whose life I touched—and with how I touched them. I wished someone had told me this 30 years earlier….
A sacred aspect of The Sacred Itself. I thought I was nothing, smaller than a piece of dust in the cosmic sky. Then I discovered Who I Really Am—who we all are—and what we are all doing here, and everything shifted in my life. I found that earlier in my life I knew nothing of the real truths of life. I thought it was about get the car, get the girl, get a job, get the diploma, get the spouse, get the kids, get the house, get the raise, get the better car, get the better job, get the bigger house, get the gray hair, get the grandkids, get the office on the top floor in the corner, get the retirement watch, get the pension, get the cruise tickets, get the apartment that replaces the house, get the illness, get the sympathy, and get the hell out.
Now I know better. Are there things that most of us do not understand about ourselves and about who we are, the understanding of which would alter our lives forever for the better?
Of course there are. Determine this moment to begin spending 20 minutes a day with your soul. Use the guidelines toward the end of this book as a means of creating that experience, or any other tools that you wish, but promise yourself to do it.
Sooner or later in our lives we have to make a major decision about the most important question in life: What is our actual identity? Are we the physical manifestation of a biological incident, or are we something greater, something more, something other than a mere mammal? As I observe it, I have a couple of choices when it comes to how I think of myself.
If I see myself as a Chemical Creature I would see myself as having no more connection to the Larger Processes of Life than any other chemical or biological life form. Like all the others, I would be impacted by life, but could have very little impact on life.
Further, as a Chemical Creature I would see myself as having very limited ability to create an intentioned response to the events and conditions of life. I would see myself as a creatures of habit and instinct, with only those resources that my biology brings me.
I would see myself as having more resources than a turtle, because my biology has gifted me with more. I would see myself as having more resources than a butterfly, because my biology has gifted me with more. I would see myself as having more resources than an ape or a dolphin but, in those cases, perhaps not all that many more , because my biology has gifted me with more. Yet that is all I would see myself as having in terms of resources. If I saw myself as a Spiritual Being, I would see myself as having powers and abilities far beyond those of a simple Chemical Creature; powers that transcend basic physicality and its laws.
I would understand that these powers and abilities give me collaborative control over the exterior elements of my Individual and Collective Life and complete control over the interior elements—which means that I have total ability to create my own reality, because my reality has nothing to do with producing the exterior elements of my life and everything to do with how I respond to the elements that have been produced.
Also, as a Spiritual Being, I would know that I am here on the earth, that is for a spiritual reason. This is a highly focused purpose and has little to do directly with my occupation or career, my income or possessions or achievements or place in society, or any of the exterior conditions or circumstances of my life.
I would know that my purpose has to do with my interior life —and that how well I do in achieving my purpose may very often have an effect on my exterior life. For the interior life of each individual cumulatively produces the exterior life of the collective. That is, those people around you, and those people who are around those people who are around you. It is in this way that you, as a Spiritual Being, participate in the evolution of your species.
My answer to Question 4: Each part of my tri-part being has a function and a purpose. As I come to understand each of those functions, each aspect of me begins to more efficiently serve its purpose in my life.
I am an individuation of Divinity, an expression of God, a singularization of The Singularity. There is no separation between me and God, nor is their any difference, except as to proportion. Put simply, God and I are one. This brings up an interesting question. I am rightly accused of heresy? Are people who believe that they are divine nothing but raving lunatics?
Are they, worse yet, apostates? So I did a little research. I wanted to find out what religious and spiritual sources had to say on the subject.
According to Buddhism there ultimately is no such thing as a self independent from the rest of the universe the doctrine of anatta. Also, if I understand certain Buddhist schools of thought correcting, humans return to earth in subsequent lifetimes in one of six forms, the last of which are called Devas…which is variously translated as Gods or Deities.
Which would make me…well… God. Do you wish or need more? You might find it instructive and fascinating to go to Wikipedia, the source to which I owe my appreciation for much of the above information. As well, read the remarkable books of Huston Smith, 91 years of age at this writing and a globally honored professor of religion. Among titles of his that I most often recommend: Our Great Wisdom Traditions , , rev. So…that is my answer to the fourth question.
I am an out-picturing of the Divine. I am God in human form. So too, of course, are we all. Not once, but every day, first thing in the morning and last thing at night, for one year solid. Look at the question and give yourself the answer that feels true for you in that moment. Do not tailor the answer to what you think an enlightened being would say. Let your answer be your truth. After discussing the Three Persistent Questions, gently invite the exploration into a look at this most profound inquiry.
My answer is that I am on the Eternal Journey of the Soul. I am moving on that journey from the Realm of the Spiritual to the Realm of the Physical to the Realm of the Virtual in a continuing cycle. The Realm of the Spiritual is the realm of the absolute, where everything exists in its absolute state. In this realm there is only Love, it is always Now, and there is only Here.
In truth, it is but a part of heaven. This realm may also be called the Realm of Knowing, because everything that is, is utterly and completely known. The Realm of the Physical is the realm of the relative, where things exist relative to other things.
Here there is up and down, big and small, fast and slow, hot and cold, here and there, before and after, male and female, and an entire universe of what appear to be dualities but are really triads—more on this later! This realm may also be called the Realm of Experiencing, because the soul places itself here in order to experience, in relative terms, what it knows itself to be absolutely.
That is, exactly as on a computer, we are making it all up. God is the Great Maker-Upper. Or, if you prefer more respectful and reverent language…God is the Creator. I am, right now, in the Realm of the Physical.
Nor it is a school, where I must make passing grades. There is nothing for me to learn, there is only for me to remember. Everything I needed to know I knew when I arrived here. It is part of my cellular encoding.
The year-old tree outside my window knows nothing more now about how to be a tree than it knew when it was a seedling, no bigger than the nail on my little fi nger.
All it has done is grow into itself, becoming more of what it always was. Nor is this place where I am a testing ground, where I am put through my paces to make sure I am up to snuff.
I was perfect when I arrived here, I am perfect in this moment, and I will ever and always be perfect through the entirety of my eternal and everlasting life. This place called Earth is simply and magnificently a place where I am able, because of its relative environment, to experience in lifetime after lifetime any and every aspect of God that it brings me joy to express in me, through me, as me.
There is nothing I have to do, nowhere I have to go, and no way I have to be except exactly the way I am being right now. My happiness is knowing this, my joy is expressing it, my bliss is experiencing it.
These three realms—this whole construction, if you will—was given to me in my conversations with God. There is obviously much more to explain about all of this.
I am skimming the surface here, because to go much deeper would be to fill two books. I went this far because I felt it was only fair to offer the answers to these questions that have emerged through me and in me as a result of my own soul searching—and my direct questioning of God. Not everyone would come up with the same answers even if they, too, questioned God. I am clear that God speaks to each of us in the language and using the terms and offering the analogies and illustrations that God knows will best allow us to understand with our finite minds the infinite reality.
For now, let me end my answer to question 5 with this: We are not really journeying anywhere. Yet even the placing of attention implies the existence of time, because the placing of attention on this or that appears to be a sequential activity.
I assure you, however, that there is no such thing as Time as we commonly understand it, and that we have all of our attention on all of our creation in all of the spaces of All Of It all the time. My thought is that I am in the Realm of the Physical, or what may also be called the Realm of the Relative, because I desire a Contextual Field within which to Experience what I Know of myself, and to experience it fully. I cannot experience who I am in the Realm of the Spiritual because there, there is nothing I am not.
And in the absence of what I am not, what I am…is not. That is, it is not experienceable. The light cannot be experienced without the darkness. Only in the presence of the thing called Small can the thing called Big be experienced. The cycle of my eternal journey, from the Realm of the Virtual to the Realm of the Spiritual to the Realm of the Physical, then returning to the Realm of Virtual, where the cycle begins all over again, has a purpose.
In simple terms and these are simple terms , God is growing—becoming more of Itself—through this process. God IS this process. That is, God is the Process Itself…and the result of it. The Alpha and the Omega. The Beginning and The End. There is no Time and there is no Space. Therefore, there is no time in which to grow, and no space into which to grow. The Cycle of Life is therefore occurring simultaneously everywhere.
This is called Evolution. Stated simply, this was accomplished by The Whole by dividing but not separating itself from Itself, re-creating Itself in smaller and finite form.
Let me see if I can illustrate this. Hold a DVD of your favorite movie in your hand. Notice that the entire movie exists on the disc.
When you put the DVD into a player and watch the story unfold, you know at some level that everything has already happened. Everything that ever was, is now, and ever will be…is now. My answer may not be yours. But I am intrigued by this from Shakespeare:. There are more things in heaven and earth, Horatio, than are dreamt of in your philosophy. Hamlet, Act I, Scene 5. My idea is that I intend to keep myself aware that I am engaging in the Process of God.
God is a Process. You are engaged in that Process now. I have always been, and I always will be. This is Nirvana, this is Pure be Bliss. Here in the Realm of the Physical I am producing and then living within a Contextual Field in order that Experience may occur. The Experience I choose. I make this choice by my co-creation of, and my response to, the Contextual Field, and my decision with regard to it.
It is up to me. The process by which I experience what I came to physicality to experience is a process of increasing my awareness of the Process Itself.
It invites me to Master the Moment. I can do this by moving into each moment deciding ahead of time what I Intend to Express. I am inviting myself not to live my life as an experience of reaction, nor even as an experience of creation, but as an experience of intention, producing the expression of Divinity.
This is what I call fulfillment. In truth I cannot create anything, because everything has already been created.
I am wasting my time trying to create something. When I am trying to create peace, security, opportunity, prosperity, happiness, and love, I am in the sandbox, playing with toys. I did not come here for that. I came here to experience my Self as Who I Really Am; to express through me, as me, an aspect of Divinity—and to re-create myself anew in the next grandest version of the greatest vision ever I held about Who I Am.
When I do that, all those other things I was trying to produce in my life come to me without effort. I could, of course, be wrong about all of this. But my experience has shown otherwise—and I have not found a more inspiring or a more exciting way to live. That is what makes this a paradise. You would have to adopt a new perspective—the perspective of the soul, on why things are happening the way they are happening, what the purpose of every event is, and how we can put those events to that purpose in a meaningful way.
Bless those experiences and circumstances and forgive yourself for ever having been them wrong, or not okay with you if, in fact, you ever did. Embrace them now in your heart as the gifts that each of them were and are. And if they truly came from God, should they not be dictums? First, God does not lay down dictums. That would violate the first condition of life, which is Freedom. Or, as some religions have labeled it: Freedom is a fundamental condition, it is an Isness , which God never would or could overrule or dismiss.
God cannot overrule an Isness because God Is the Isness. God IS Freedom; the perfect expression of that. So the last thing God could or would do is demand something or require something or force something. The very reason that most of the ideas that most of the religions have put into most the world have not worked is that most of those religions have declared most of their ideas to be Right and Best.
Nothing stops humanity from adopting an idea faster than being told that the idea dare not be opposed, because it is Right and Best.
But the fact that I believe in them does not translate in my mind into a requirement that you should believe in them. This is the problem with most religions. The purpose of proposing of an idea should be simply that. To propose it, not to impose it. If they simply proposed rather than imposed , there would be no problem. There also would not have been the Crusades, the jihads, the ethnic cleansings, and the countless other horror-ridden and totally unacceptable tactics by means of which, throughout history, one group has sought to overlay its views and ideas on another.
As you surely know, litmus is a dye obtained from certain lichens that is red under acid conditions and blue under alkaline conditions. So…if you live in the U. If you live somewhere else, are you a member of the Red Team conservative or the Blue Team liberal?
Be careful of your choice. Be sure about what jersey you put on, because no deviation is permitted in this kind of deeply divisive politics. Individual thinking by members of a group or party is not allowed.
Of course I would like humanity to seriously consider the ideas here, and maybe even adopt a few of them, but I believe that the simple proposing of the ideas should be enough. If they have true merit, the benefit of adopting and embracing them will be self-apparent.
If not, the ideas should be dismissed. People may read these and stamp them Rejected. The choice is always theirs. That exploration alone, that single, civil conversation, can affect a great deal.
I believe that we are just one conversation from paradise. I want paradise for you. I want you to know peace and joy in your life. I wish that for all of us. For your children and for mine. So my yearning for this future has taken on a very poignant energy for me today. I touched on this ever so briefly at the very outset of our time together here. I said that I just wanted to look at it quickly and then get to solutions fast.
But now I want to expand on what I said then, as I promised that I would do. The situation we find ourselves in as we move more deeply into the 21 st Century is that we are coming up with the wrong medicine for the wrong illness. What we think is wrong with us is not wrong with us, so what we hope is the solution is not the solution. The biggest difficulty in the world today is that we continue trying to solve our problems at every level except the level at which the problems exist. We hold discussions, we write laws, we pass legislation and adopt resolutions in every local, national, regional, and global language and assembly we can think of to try to solve the problem with words— but it does not work.
Whatever short-term solutions we may create evaporate very quickly, and the problems reemerge. They will not go away. They are economic problems. We throw money at them, or withhold money from them as in the form of sanctions , seeking to solve the problems with cash. But it does not work. Whatever short-term solutions we may create evaporate very quickly, the problems reemerge. They must be military problems. We throw bullets at them and drop bombs on them, seeking to solve the problems with weapons.
And so, having run out of solutions, we declare: No one expected that they could be fixed overnight. This is going to be a long, hard slog.
Many lives will be lost in trying to solve these problems. But we are not going to give up. We are going to solve these problems if it kills us. After a while, however, even primitive beings of very little consciousness become tired of the killing and the dying of their own sons and daughters in battle and their own women and children and elderly in the line of fire.
And so, after enough killing has been done with no solution in sight, they say it is time to call a truce and hold peace talks. And the cycle begins again…. We are back to the bargaining table, and back to politicking as a solution.
And peace talks often include discussion of reparations and economic recovery. And so, we are back to money as a solution. And when these solutions fail to work in the long run, we are back to bombs again.
And on and on and on it goes, and on and on and on it has gone throughout human history. Only the names of the players have changed, but the game has not. Only primitive cultures and primitive beings do this. I know that you have all heard the definition of insanity. Insanity is doing the same thing over and over again, expecting to get a different result. I know that you have heard, a hundred times by now, the definition of insanity.
The great tragedy and the great sadness of humanity is that we are forever willing to settle for postponements in place of solutions. Only primitive cultures and primitive beings do that. Highly evolved beings would never, ever settle for a ten-thousand-year postponement in solving their biggest problems. And so we do our endless dance all around it. That is what I meant when I said at the very top of this conversation that things are not what they seem. The problem in the world today is a spiritual problem.
It has to do with what people believe. It has to do with what they hold to be true about Life, about God, about themselves and about each other. This problem of beliefs creates a condition of hopelessness, helplessness, anger, and rebellion. That condition produces a circumstance — inevitably produces a circumstance — of run-away violence. The problem of beliefs is a problem which all of us have helped to create.
This is true because all of us have beliefs. And all of us pass on those beliefs to others—to our children and our grandchildren and our neighbors and our friends. We join together to create a Cultural Story…and that Cultural Story is what creates the Conditions which produce the Circumstances that we are trying to eliminate and to avoid.
Yet we cannot eliminate them and we cannot avoid them until we eliminate and avoid the beliefs that created them— and this is something we have staunchly refused to do. Our first experience in life is separation from our mother, the source of our life.
This sets the tone and creates the context for our entire reality, which we experience to be one of separation from the Source of all life. We are not only separate from all life, but from everything else in life. Everything that exists, exists separate from us, and we are separate from everything else that exists.
We do not want it this way, but this is the way it is. We wish it were otherwise, and, indeed, we strive for it to be otherwise. We seek to experience Oneness again with all things, and especially with each other. We may not know why, exactly, yet it seems almost instinctual. It feels like the natural thing to do. The only problem is, there does not seem to be enough of The Other to satisfy us.
No matter what the Other Thing is that we want, we cannot seem to get enough of it. We cannot get enough love, we cannot get enough time, we cannot get enough money, we cannot get enough of whatever it is we think we need in order to be happy and fulfilled.
The moment we think that we have enough, we decide that we want more. Therefore WE, like all of life, are not enough. Thus, the competition begins. This competition is tough. This is about our very survival. In this contest, only the fittest survive. Only to the victor go the spoils. If you are a loser, you live a hell on Earth, and after you die, if you are a loser in the competition for God, you experience hell again — this time forever.
Death was actually created by God because our forebears made the wrong choices. In Western theologies the Myth of Adam and Eve tells us about this. According to the myth, humans had everlasting life in the Garden of Eden, but then, Eve ate the fruit of the tree of the Knowledge of Good and Evil, and she and Adam were driven from the garden by an angry God, who sentenced them, and all their progeny forevermore , to death as The First Punishment.
Henceforth, life in the body would be limited, and no longer everlasting, and so would the stuff of life. Many other cultures have their own Origination Stories, and most tell the same tale: Yet God will give us back our everlasting life if we never again break His rules. God loves us even as He condemns us to everlasting damnation. The choice is ours. The trick is, therefore, to not misbehave. We need to live a good life. We must strive to do so. We cannot please God, we cannot avoid offending Him, if we do not know Right from Wrong.
So we have to know the Truth about that. The Truth is simple to understand and easy to know. All we have to do is listen to the prophets, the teachers, the sages, and the Source and Founder of our religion. If there is more than one religion, and therefore, more than one Source and Founder, then we have to make sure to pick the Right One.
Extra harnesses and spare wagon parts were often carried. Most carried steel shoes for horses, mules, or livestock. Tar was carried to help repair an ox's injured hoof. Goods, supplies, and equipment were often shared by fellow travelers.
New iron shoes for horses, mules, and oxen were put on by blacksmiths found along the way. Equipment repairs and other goods could be procured from blacksmith shops established at some forts and some ferries. Emergency supplies, repairs, and livestock were often provided by local residents in California, Oregon, and Utah for late travelers on the trail who were hurrying to beat the snow.
Non-essential items were often abandoned to lighten the load, or in case of emergency. Many travelers would salvage discarded items, picking up essentials or leaving behind their lower quality item when a better one was found abandoned along the road. Some profited by collecting discarded items, hauling them back to jumping off places, and reselling them. In the early years, Mormons sent scavenging parties back along the trail to salvage as much iron and other supplies as possible and haul it to Salt Lake City , where supplies of all kinds were needed.
During the gold rush, Fort Laramie was known as "Camp Sacrifice" because of the large amounts merchandise discarded nearby. Some travelers carried their excess goods to Salt Lake City to be sold. Professional tools used by blacksmiths, carpenters, and farmers were carried by nearly all.
Axes, crow bars, hammers, hatchets, hoes, mallets, mattocks, picks, planes, saws, scythes, and shovels  were used to clear or make a road through brush or trees, cut down the banks to cross a wash or steep banked stream, build a raft or bridge, or repair the wagon. In general, as little road work as possible was done. Travel was often along the top of ridges to avoid the brush and washes common in many valleys.
Overall, some , pioneers used the Oregon Trail and its three primary offshoots, the Bozeman , California , and Mormon trails to reach the West Coast, Another 48, headed to Utah. There is no estimate on how many used it to return East. Some of the trail statistics for the early years were recorded by the U. Army at Fort Laramie, Wyoming , from about to None of these original statistical records have been found—the Army either lost them or destroyed them.
Only some partial written copies of the Army records and notes recorded in several diaries have survived. Emigration to California spiked considerably with the gold rush. Following the discovery of gold, California remained the destination of choice for most emigrants on the trail up to , with almost , people traveling there between and Travel diminished after , as the Civil War caused considerable disruptions on the trail.
Many of the people on the trail in — were fleeing the war and its attendant drafts in both the south and the north. Trail historian Merrill J. Mattes  has estimated the number of emigrants for — given in the total column of the above table. But these estimates may well be low since they only amount to an extra , people, and the census shows that over , additional people ignoring most of the population increase in California, which had excellent sea and rail connections across Panama by then showed up in all the states served by the Bozeman, California, Mormon, and Oregon Trail s and their offshoots.
Mormon emigration records after are reasonably accurate, as newspaper and other accounts in Salt Lake City give most of the names of emigrants arriving each year from to Though the numbers are significant in the context of the times, far more people chose to remain at home in the 31 states. Many were discouraged by the cost, effort and danger of the trip. Western scout Kit Carson is thought to have said, "The cowards never started and the weak died on the way", though the general saying was written [ when?
Many who went were between the ages 12 and Between and , the U. These census numbers show a , population increase in the western states and territories between and Some of this increase is because of a high birth rate in the western states and territories, but most is from emigrants moving from the east to the west and new immigration from Europe. Much of the increase in California and Oregon is from emigration by ship, as there was fast and reasonably low cost transportation via east and west coast steamships and the Panama Railroad after The cost of traveling over the Oregon Trail and its extensions varied from nothing to a few hundred dollars per person.
Women seldom went alone. The cheapest way was to hire on to help drive the wagons or herds, allowing one to make the trip for nearly nothing or even make a small profit. Those with capital could often buy livestock in the Midwest and drive the stock to California or Oregon for profit.
Families planned the trip months in advance and made much of the extra clothing and many other items needed. The route west was arduous and fraught with many dangers, but the number of deaths on the trail is not known with any precision; there are only wildly varying estimates.
Estimating is difficult because of the common practice of burying people in unmarked graves that were intentionally disguised to avoid their being dug up by animals or Indians.
Graves were often put in the middle of a trail and then run over by the livestock to make them difficult to find. Indian attacks increased significantly after , when most of the army troops were withdrawn, and miners and ranchers began fanning out all over the country, often encroaching on Indian territory. Increased attacks along the Humboldt led to most travelers' taking the Central Nevada Route.
The Goodall cutoff, developed in Idaho in , kept Oregon bound travelers away from much of the Indian trouble nearer the Snake River. Other trails were developed that traveled further along the South Platte to avoid local Indian hot spots. Other common causes of death included hypothermia , drowning in river crossings, getting run over by wagons, and accidental gun deaths.
Later, more family groups started traveling, and many more bridges and ferries were being put in, so fording a dangerous river became much less common and dangerous. Surprisingly few people were taught to swim in this era. Being run over was a major cause of death, despite the wagons' only averaging 2—3 miles per hour.
The wagons could not easily be stopped, and people, particularly children, were often trying to get on and off the wagons while they were moving—not always successfully. Another hazard was a dress getting caught in the wheels and pulling the person under. Accidental shootings declined significantly after Fort Laramie, as people became more familiar with their weapons and often just left them in their wagons. Carrying around a ten-pound rifle all day soon became tedious and usually unnecessary, as the perceived Indian threat faded and hunting opportunities receded.
A significant number of travelers were suffering from scurvy by the end of their trips. The diet in the mining camps was also typically low in fresh vegetables and fruit, which indirectly led to early deaths of many of the inhabitants. Some believe that scurvy deaths may have rivaled cholera as a killer, with most deaths occurring after the victim reached California. Miscellaneous deaths included deaths by childbirth, falling trees, flash floods, homicides, kicks by animals, lightning strikes, snake bites, and stampedes.
Reaching the Sierra Nevada before the start of the winter storms was critical for a successful completion of a trip. The most famous failure in that regard was that of the Donner Party , whose members struggled to traverse what is today called Donner Pass , in November When the last survivor was rescued in April , 33 men, women, and children had died at Donner Lake ; with some of the 48 survivors' confessing to having resorted to cannibalism to survive.
Disease was the biggest killer on the Oregon Trail. Cholera was responsible for many of the lives taken. During the span of time the trail was in use, cholera was endemic to much of the US-Specifically on the east coast. Cholera has an incubation period of up to five days. After the first sign of symptoms, the person would typically be dead within a few hours. Many of the deceased were left on the trail, contaminating rivers and streams, which was the only supply of water for many of the travelers.
They are transmitted through the fecal-oral route, like Cholera, so they were easily spread on the trail. Diphtheria was also present on the trail. This disease is airborne and spread through an infected persons cough or sneeze. It posed the biggest threat to young children. Due to the fact that many settlers traveled in groups, this disease was particularly devastating. The measles was an issue for many settlers, particularly children. Measles will rarely infect a person twice, so if the individual survives a childhood incident of measles, they are not likely to get it again.
However, many children did not survive. Like diphtheria, it is spread via airborne transmission. It is one of the most highly contagious infectious diseases. The symptoms of the disease start out similar to influenza a high fever, cough and runny nose. This period can last anywhere from 10—12 days before the rash symptom appears. During this time the disease is highly contagious, it can stay in the air of where an infected person coughed for up to two hours.
Factors of traveling such as poor sanitation and close quarters made diseases rampant on the Oregon Trail. There were other possible migration paths for early settlers, miners, or travelers to California or Oregon besides the Oregon trail prior to the establishment of the transcontinental railroads. James Sinclair led a large party of nearly settlers from the Red River Colony in These northern routes were largely abandoned after Britain ceded its claim to the southern Columbia River basin by way of the Oregon Treaty of The cost could be reduced to zero if you signed on as a crewman and worked as a common seaman.
The hundreds of abandoned ships, whose crews had deserted in San Francisco Bay in —50, showed many thousands chose to do this. Catching a fatal disease was a distinct possibility as Ulysses S.
Grant in learned when his unit of about soldiers and some of their dependents traversed the Isthmus and lost about men, women, and children. Another route established by Cornelius Vanderbilt in was across Nicaragua. Vanderbilt decided to use paddle wheel steam ships from the U. All his connections in Nicaragua were never completely worked out before the Panama Railroad's completion in Another possible route consisted of taking a ship to Mexico traversing the country and then catching another ship out of Acapulco , Mexico to California etc.
This route was used by some adventurous travelers but was not too popular because of the difficulties of making connections and the often hostile population along the way. George Cooke 's Mormon Battalion in who were the first to take a wagon the whole way. This route was used by many gold hungry miners in and later but suffered from the disadvantage that you had to find a way across the very wide and very dry Sonora Desert.
It was used by many in and later as a winter crossing to California, despite its many disadvantages. Employing over at its peak, it used Concord Stagecoaches seating 12 very crowded passengers in three rows.
It used 1, head of stock, horses and mules and relay stations to ensure the stages ran day and night. I've just had 24 days of it. Other ways to get to Oregon were: All provided a trickle of emigrants, but they were soon overwhelmed in numbers by the emigrants coming over the Oregon Trail.
Without the many thousands of United States settlers in Oregon and California, and thousands more on their way each year, it is highly unlikely that this would have occurred. The western expansion, and the Oregon Trail in particular, inspired numerous creative works about the settlers' experiences. The Oregon Trail Memorial half dollar was coined to commemorate the route. Issued intermittently between and , , were sold to the public. With , minted in , that year's issue remains readily available for collectors.
The story of the Oregon Trail inspired the educational video game series The Oregon Trail , which became widely popular in the s and early s. The song " Uncle Sam's Farm " encouraged east-coast dwellers to "Come right away. Our lands they are broad enough, so don't be alarmed. Uncle Sam is rich enough to give us all a farm. In "Western Country", the singer exhorts that, "if I had no horse at all, I'd still be a hauling, far across those Rocky Mountains, goin' away to Oregon.
Online rapper Bones has a side project called "OregonTrail," which has roughly 10, followers on SoundCloud. The lyrical themes of his songs under this pseudonym revolve around the Oregon Trail. The set includes 14 original episodes, including the feature-length pilot and the six episodes that did not air on NBC.
The episode of Teen Titans Go! From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 1 October For other uses, see Oregon Trail disambiguation. History of the Oregon Trail. Lewis and Clark Expedition. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
May Learn how and when to remove this template message. This article's text uses more words than are necessary. Please help improve this article by using fewer words whilst keeping the content of the article. California Hill and O'Fallons Bluff.
Emigrant Trail in Wyoming. This section may need to be rewritten entirely to comply with Wikipedia's quality standards. The discussion page may contain suggestions. Archived from the original on March 4, Retrieved May 12, The Missouri River to the Pacific Ocean. Retrieved January 11, Retrieved January 12, Archived from the original on June 6, Retrieved 11 May Archived from the original on February 2, Retrieved December 31, The Discovery of the Oregon Trail: Trading Beyond the Mountains: The British Fur Trade on the Pacific; - Retrieved March 19, Retrieved October 12, Archived from the original PDF on April 16, Retrieved April 16, Rocky Mountain Rendezvous , pg Archived from the original on June 14, Retrieved May 20, Archived from the original on May 31, Retrieved December 22, Rumors and Alarmism on the Overland Trail.
Butler, ebook version, University of Nebraska Press, pp The Lives of Women on the Frontier. University of Oklahoma Press, , p. Archived from the original on July 19, Retrieved January 5, Archived from the original on December 5, California Census, the first census that included everyone, showed only about 7, females with 4, non-Indian females older than 15 in the state.
To find a "correct" census there should be added about 20, men and about 1, females from San Francisco, Santa Clara, and Contra Costa counties whose censuses were lost and not included in the official totals. University of Illinois Press. The Beginnings of the West. Archived from the original on June 24, Retrieved January 21, Rainer Printing Company North America Travel Guide.
Retrieved August 30, The Great Platte River Road. Archived from the original on November 21, Medical Problems on the Overland Trails".
Archived from the original on May 27, Wyoming State Historic Preservation Office. Archived from the original PDF on February 4, Utah Division of Parks and Recreation. Archived from the original on February 11, The Salt Lake Tribune. Retrieved September 17, Retrieved January 28, Archived from the original on February 6, Retrieved February 23, Archived from the original on May 15, Retrieved March 2, An American Saga Knopt, , pp.
The Saddle Mule in the American West , p. Stewart, The California Trail: An Epic with Many Heroes , p. The Oregon Trail an American Saga. The California Publishing Company. Old Californians, page 48, by Joaquin Miller.
Retrieved March 9, The cowards did not start to the Pacific Coast in the old days; all the weak died on the way. And so it was that we had then not only a race of giants, but of gods. Bleed, Blister, and Purge: A History of Medicine on the American Frontier. Mountain Press Publishing Company, The United States in , and According to our research of Arizona and other state lists there were 1, registered sex offenders living in Tucson as of October 16, The ratio of number of residents in Tucson to the number of sex offenders is to 1.
No representation is made that the persons listed here are currently on the state's sex offenders registry. All names presented here were gathered at a past date. Some persons listed might no longer be registered sex offenders and others might have been added. Some addresses or other data might no longer be current. Accordingly, you should confirm the accuracy and completeness of all posted information before making any decision related to any data presented on this site.
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Port Manteaux churns out silly new words when you feed it an idea or two. Enter a word (or two) above and you'll get back a bunch of portmanteaux created by jamming together words that are conceptually related to your inputs.. For example, enter "giraffe" and you'll get . According to our research of Arizona and other state lists there were 1, registered sex offenders living in Tucson as of October 10, The ratio of number of residents in Tucson to the number of sex offenders is to Crime in Tucson detailed stats: murders, . The Oregon Trail is a 2,mile (3, km) historic East–West, large-wheeled wagon route and emigrant trail in the United States that connected the Missouri River to valleys in kitchener-waterloo-chiropractor.com eastern part of the Oregon Trail spanned part of the future state of Kansas, and nearly all of what are now the states of Nebraska and kitchener-waterloo-chiropractor.com western half of the trail spanned most of the future.